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Cellulose - Fundamental Aspects and Current Trends

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ISBN: 9789535122296 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.5772/59889 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Organic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Cellulose - Fundamental Aspects and Current Trends consists of 10 chapters written by international subject matter experts investigating the characteristics and current applications of this fascinating material. This book will help the reader to develop a deeper understanding about the concepts related to cellulose and the nanocellulose structure, modification, production, dissolution, and application. Biosynthesis mechanisms and medical applications of microbial cellulose are also discussed. This book will serve as the starting point for materials science researchers, engineers, and technologists from diverse backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biology, materials science, and engineering who want to know and better understand the unique characteristics of the most abundant biopolymer on earth.

Advanced Topics in Crystallization

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Book Series: 2015-05-06 ISBN: 9789535121251 9789535142249 Year: Pages: 372 DOI: 10.5772/58651 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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In nearly all process industries, crystallization is used at some stage as a method of production, purification or recovery of solid materials. In recent years, a number of new applications have also come to rely on crystallization processes such as the crystallization of nano and amorphous materials. The articles in this book have been contributed by some of the most respected researchers in this area and cover the frontier areas of research and developments in crystallization processes. Divided into three sections, this book provides the latest research developments in many aspects of crystallization including the crystallization of biological macromolecules and pharmaceutical compounds, the crystallization of nanomaterials and the crystallization of amorphous and glassy materials. This book is of interest to both fundamental research and practicing scientists and will prove invaluable to all chemical engineers and industrial chemists in process industries, as well as crystallization workers and students in industry and academia.

Carbon Fibers

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ISBN: 9783906980690 9783906980706 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-906980-70-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:30:12
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Remarkably, truly novel structures are still being found for materials made of a single element: carbon. Perhaps there is a ‘revolution’ in carbon-only materials. Indeed, recently, two Nobel prizes were awarded for new forms of carbon: for fullerenes in 1996, and for graphene in 2010. And the magic and beauty of carbon nanotubes has held the attention of the scientific world for more than a decade. Yet, there is still more to discover and to explain. In this Special Issue, the focus is on just one area of carbon research: fibers. Even given this relatively narrow focus there is a diversity of research that is both compelling and frustrating. Compelling as it demonstrates the vitality of the subject, and frustrating as it makes it difficult to organize. The topics covered include new fiber fabrication protocols, the mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced polymers, new techniques to study the microstructure of fiber containing composites, new uses of fiber structures, the use of carbon fibers as catalyst supports, and studies regarding the difficulties of machining fiber structures for inclusion in complex structures.

Low-Cost Methods for Molecular Characterization of Mutant Plants: Tissue Desiccation, DNA Extraction and Mutation Discovery: Protocols

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ISBN: 9783319162584 9783319162591 Year: Pages: 35 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-16259-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Biotechnology --- Plant Sciences --- Manufactures --- Chemical Engineering --- Pharmacy and materia medica
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-12 17:07:01
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Open Access provided with a grant from the International Atomic Energy Agency.This book offers low-cost and rapid molecular assays for the characterization of mutant plant germplasm. Detailed protocols are provided for the desiccation of plant tissues; the extraction of high-quality DNA for downstream applications; the extraction of single-strand-specific nucleases for single nucleotide polymorphism; and small insertion/deletion discovery using standard agarose gel electrophoresis. The methods described can be applied in any laboratory equipped for basic molecular biology and do away with the need for expensive freezers and toxic organic compounds. With the appropriate validation of sample quality and longevity, they can provide sufficient DNA for a variety of molecular applications, such as marker studies and TILLING, at approximately one tenth of the cost per sample when compared to commercial kits.

Radiation-induced and oxidative DNA damages

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196609 Year: Pages: 93 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-660-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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DNA stores and passes the genetic information of almost all living organisms. Its molecular structure and their intramolecular interactions are particularly suitable to maximize stability against oxidative stress and UV-light absorption. Yet the protection and repair strategies are still error-prone: DNA lesions are produced, including the most complex and highly mutagenic ones. An important threat to DNA stability comes from photosensitization, i.e. from the dramatic multiplication of radiation-induced defects mediated by the presence of organic or organometallic dyes compared to the direct exposure to UVA radiation. Moreover, the photo-induced production of singlet oxygen generates an extremely high oxidative stress on DNA that, in vivo, normally results in extended cellular apoptosis. Elucidating the processes leading to DNA damages, from the production of a simple radical entity to deleterious lesions, as well as the opportunities of repair by devoted enzymes, is a cornerstone towards the development of more efficient protection strategies. Sensitization and selective production of DNA lesions can also be exploited to induce the selective apoptosis of cancer cells upon exposition to radiation or to oxidative stress, for instance in the field of photodynamic therapy. The importance and relevance of the field is witnessed by the impressive amount of high-level papers dealing with this complex subject, and notably tackling the structural elucidation of DNA and DNA-drug adducts, the mechanisms of formation of DNA lesions (including the precise detection of the final lesion products), as well as the influence of the lesions on the DNA stability and dynamics and the consequences on the ease of repair. Due to the complexity of the field lying at the frontiers between chemistry, physics and biology, multidisciplinary strategies allying modeling and experience are needed. This topic aims at giving an extended overview of the current research in the domain, with fundamental contribution from the leading groups in the field of DNA reactivity, structural characterization, photo-chemistry and photo-physics, as well as repair mechanism. It will therefore be a fundamental guide for scientists wanting to address the field of DNA lesion and repair, but also more generally for researchers working in rational drug design or in the development of biomarkers and medical imaging techniques.

Design and Engineering of Microreactor and Smart-Scaled Flow Processes

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ISBN: 9783038420385 9783038420392 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-039-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 07:00:06
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Microreactors are small devices with sub-millimeter internals which have superb mass and heat transfer. Initially, they were used for reactions with very high demands on the latter, e.g. very exothermic reactions, gas-liquid reactions with interfacial transport issues, reactions with very fast kinetics which demands even faster mixing, and more. In this way, the processing window was opened widely and, also due to the minute volumes only present in the reaction zone, safe processing under otherwise hazardous conditions was enabled. This includes processing of reactions which are prone to thermal runaway and in the explosive regime. Scale-up of promising reactions and products which was hindered with conventional technology is now possible using the new equipment. This has widened the process development possibilities in chemical industry.In the last years, micro process technology was not only used for the very problematic synthetic issues which formerly had a dead-end position in industry’s process development. Rather, the scope of chemical reactions to be processed in microreactors was considerably widened by exploring new process conditions with regard to temperature, pressure, concentration, solvents, and more. This is commonly referred to as flow chemistry. This allowed to reduce the processing time-scale for many reactions to the minute range or even below which fits well to the residence times of microreactors. In addition, the process integration of several reactions in one flow to a multi-step synthesis has opened a new door in molecular diversity as well as system and process complexity. The same holds for the combination of reactions and separations in micro-flow. To achieve throughputs relevant for industrial production, smart scale-out to milli-flow units has established and supplemented the num­bering-up concept (parallelization of microchannels/-reactors operated under equal conditions).New innovations and enabling technologies need anyhow evaluation and benchmarking with conventional technology on the full-system level. Yet, microreactor technology has in the last years deepened so much into process intensification on a holistic scale that the focus increasingly is given towards the process dimension—to process design and automation, real-case applications, cost analysis, life-cycle assessment, and more. The impact on cost competitiveness and sustainability becomes well assessed.Facing this very recent scientific achievement, the special issue “Design and Engineering of Microreactor and Smart-Scaled Flow Processes” of the journal Processes aims to cover recent advances in the development of microreactor and smart-scaled flow processes towards the process level — in the sense as given above.

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