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Taxonomic Tapestries: The Threads of Evolutionary, Behavioural and Conservation Research

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ISBN: 9781925022360 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_569097 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-07-14 11:01:23
License: ANU Press

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This volume explores the complexity, diversity and interwoven nature of taxonomic pursuits within the context of explorations of humans and related species. It also pays tribute to Professor Colin Groves, whose work has had an enormous impact on this field. Recent research into that somewhat unique species we call humankind, through the theoretical and conceptual approaches afforded by the discipline of biological anthropology, is showcased. The focus is on the evolution of the human species, the behaviour of primates and other species, and how humans affect the distribution and abundance of other species through anthropogenic impact. Weaving together these three key themes, through the considerable influence of Colin Groves, provides glimpses of how changes in taxonomic theory and methodology, including our fluctuating understanding of speciation, have recrafted the way in which we view animal behaviour, human evolution and conservation studies.

Energy metabolism and behavior in the corticotropin-releasing factor family of peptides

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195374 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-537-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General) --- Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Since Hans Selye's seminal work in the 1930s, there have been numerous advances with respect to our understanding of how the nervous and endocrine systems interact to help animals cope with stressors and how chronic stress may adversely impact health. Our modern understanding of stress essentially began in 1954 with the race to discover the hypothalamic releasing factor controlling ACTH secretion and mediating the endocrine response to stressors. Since the isolation of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in 1981, interest in CRF has focused not only on its hypophysiotropic function, but also its much broader role in coordinating many of the endocrine, behavioral and autonomic nervous system changes that occur during stress. The goal of this Research Topic is to solicit reviews and general research articles highlighting new research into stress and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the following areas: HPA axis interaction with energy regulating mechanisms during stress; and new studies on the role of CRF and urocortin and urocortins 2 and 3 in behavioral adaptation to stressors.

Roots of language

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Book Series: Classics in Linguistics ISBN: 9783946234098 9783946234104 Year: Pages: 284 + xiii DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_603354 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-18 12:30:07
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Roots of language was originally published in 1981 by Karoma Press (Ann Arbor). It was the first work to systematically develop a theory first suggested by Coelho in the late nineteenth century: that the creation of creole languages somehow reflected universal properties of language. The book also proposed that the same set of properties would be found to emerge in normal first-language acquisition and must have emerged in the original evolution of language. These proposals, some of which were elaborated in an article in Behavioral and Brain Sciences (1984), were immediately controversial and gave rise to a great deal of subsequent research in creoles, much of it aimed at rebutting the theory. The book also served to legitimize and stimulate research in language evolution, a topic regarded as off-limits by linguists for over a century. The present edition contains a foreword by the author bringing the theory up to date; a fuller exposition of many of its aspects can be found in the author’s most recent work, More than nature needs (Harvard University Press, 2014).

A comparative survey of the RF-amide peptide superfamily

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197309 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-729-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General) --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The discovery, twelve years ago, that the RF-amide peptide kisspeptin, acting via GPR54, is essential for the onset of puberty and reproduction, has been a major breakthrough in reproductive physiology. It has also put in front of the spotlights RF-amide peptides and allowed to revive research on this superfamily. The first member of this family to be characterized, in 1977, was the cardioexcitatory peptide, FMRFamide, isolated from the ganglia of the clam Macrocallista nimbosa. Since then, a large number of these peptides, designated after their C-terminal arginine (R) and amidated phenylalaline (F) residues, have been identified in representative species of all major phyla. By means of phylogenetic analyses, the superfamily of RFamide peptides has been divided into five families in vertebrates: kisspeptin, QFRP (including 26RFa), LPXRFa (including GnIH and RFRP), PQRFa (including NPFF) and PrRP. Recent data reveal that SIFamide-type neuropeptides in protostomian invertebrates and SALMFamide-type neuropeptides in deuterostomian invertebrates share a common evolutionary origin with vertebrate LPXRFa and PQRFa. Interestingly, in invertebrates as in vertebrates, multiple genes, as well as multiple mature peptides, are often present in a single species, questioning the need for such diversity in term of function. Comparative studies on non-mammalian vertebrates and invertebrates allow major advances in the knowledge of the evolutionary history of the RF-amide peptide superfamily. Such phylogenetical studies also contribute to improve classification and nomenclature of both peptides and receptors. RF-amide peptides from different families have major evolutionary conserved roles in the control of reproduction, but also of food intake, metabolism, energy expenditure, cardiovascular function, nociception and stress. They are also involved in the integration of environmental signals, notably the photoperiod, to regulate reproduction. For instance, in most vertebrate species and especially in seasonal mammals, kisspeptin and GnIH/RFRP have complementary but opposite effects in the control of reproductive function. In addition, recent data show cross-activities between the members of the RF-amide peptide superfamily and their receptors. For example, PrRP, kisspeptin and 26RFa are able to modulate nociception via NPFF receptors. Comparative studies have the potential to reveal novel regulatory mechanisms that could give a better comprehension of physiological functions and lead to new therapeutic treatments for related human pathologies. Thus, kisspeptin antagonists have been developed as novel tools for treatment of hormone-dependent disorders of reproduction such as precocious puberty and endometriosis or kisspeptin agonists for treatment of infertility, in humans. Studies on lower vertebrate models can also contribute to the discovery of new roles of these peptides, as seen recently with kisspeptin being involved in the early development of the medaka. This research topic will aim at gathering major advances achieved through comparative studies in (mammalian and non-mammalian) vertebrates and invertebrates, in the knowledge of RF-amide peptides in term of evolutionary history and physiological roles.

Keywords

RF-amide peptides --- GPCRs --- Kisspeptin --- GnIH --- PrRP --- NPFF --- QRFP --- evolution

Antimicrobial Peptides

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ISBN: 9783038420729 9783038420736 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-073-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 10:29:38
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Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are gene-encoded, ancient (and important) mediators of innate host defense that exert direct or indirect antimicrobial action as well as possessing other important biologic activities (e.g., neutralization of endotoxin and anti-biofilm action) that help to protect vertebrates, invertebrates and plants from invading pathogens. While the emergence of multi-antibiotic resistant pathogens (and the desperate need to develop new anti-infectives) has been a recent force driving the field, interest in AMPs has an earlier origin in studies of how phagocytes kill bacteria by oxygen-independent processes. AMPs responsible for such killing of microbes by rabbit and human neutrophils were later purified by Ganz, Selsted and Lehrer, which they termed defensins; at the time of this writing, literally thousands of defensin-based publications can be found in the scientific literature! The initial reports on defensins and the earlier report by Boman’s group on the purification and action of an insect AMP represented a historical and defining point for the AMP field as they, in hindsight, demanded the recognition of AMP research as a unique discipline that has important linkages to other important fields of medicine, especially those of microbiology, infectious diseases and immunology. On a personal note, I remember conferences on phagocytes and host defense in the early 1980s where the topic of AMPs was relegated to one short session in a five day period! Now, we have hundreds of international “AMPologists” with expertise in chemistry, biochemistry, molecular and structural biology, cell biology, microbiology, pharmacology, or medicine who have built their research careers around AMPs and can now attend international conferences dedicated to advances in AMP research.

Language by mouth and by hand

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194872 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-487-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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While most natural languages rely on speech, humans can spontaneously generate comparable linguistic systems that utilize manual gestures. This collection of papers examines the interaction between natural language and its phonetic vessels - human speech or manual gestures. We seek to identify what linguistic aspects are invariant across signed and spoken languages, and determine how the choice of the phonetic vessel shapes language structure, its processing and its neural implementation. We welcome rigorous empirical studies from a wide variety of perspectives, ranging from behavioral studies to brain analyses, diverse ages (from infants to adults), and multiple languages - both conventional and emerging home signs and sign languages.

Plant Life of Southwestern Australia. Adaptations for Survival

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783110370195 Year: Pages: 268 DOI: 10.1515/9783110370195 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Ecology --- Plant Sciences --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-06 11:48:03
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Southwestern Australia is unique as it contains the world`s most nutrient-impoverished soils, experiences a prolonged-summer period and the vegetation is extremely fire-prone. It is also world-renowned for its relative high level of flora biodiversity. This book focuses on the diverse range of morphological and physiological adaptations evolved by the flora to survive in the harsh Mediterranean-type climate.

Virus Ecology and Disturbances: Impact of Environmental Disruption on the Viruses of Microorganisms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194483 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-448-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Viruses infect numerous microorganisms including, predominantly, Bacteria (bacteriophages or phages) but also Archaea, Protists, and Fungi. They are the most abundant and ubiquitous biological entities on Earth and are important drivers of ecosystem functioning. Little is known, however, about the vast majority of these viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs. Modern techniques such as metagenomics have enabled the discovery and description of more presumptive VoMs than ever before, but also have exposed gaps in our understanding of VoM ecology. Exploring the ecology of these viruses – which is how they interact with host organisms, the abiotic environment, larger organisms, and even other viruses across a variety of environments and conditions – is the next frontier. Integration of a growing molecular understanding of VoMs with ecological studies will expand our knowledge of ecosystem dynamics. Ecology can be studied at multiple levels including individual organisms, populations, communities, whole ecosystems, and the entire biosphere. Ecology additionally can consider normal, equilibrium conditions or instead perturbations. Perturbations are of particular interest because measuring the effect of disturbances on VoM-associated communities provides important windows into how VoMs contribute to ecosystem dynamics. These disturbances in turn can be studied through in vitro, in vivo, and in situ experimentation, measuring responses by VoM-associated communities to changes in nutrient availability, stress, physical disruption, seasonality, etc., and could apply to studies at all ecological levels. These are considered here across diverse systems and environments.

De la genèse de la langue à Internet

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ISBN: 9783034317986 9783035307016 9783035397833 Year: DOI: 10.3726/9783035307016 Language: French
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103676
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-24 11:21:03
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Ce recueil d’articles regroupe une sélection des communications présentées au colloque international et pluridisciplinaire tenu à Oxford en janvier 2013, que complètent quelques contributions d’éminents chercheurs sur l’évolution du français, depuis ses origines jusqu’à ses développements liés à l’influence d’Internet. Les auteurs de ce volume s’intéressent à la langue française sous toutes ses formes et dans toutes ses représentations, dans le cinéma ou dans la littérature, et l’abordent aussi bien à travers sa syntaxe, son lexique, sa phonologie, que dans ses modalités orales ou écrites. De la rencontre de ces différents éclairages émerge un portrait de la langue française du XXIe siècle, telle qu’elle est étudiée actuellement, dans les recherches, dans ses modes d’écriture contemporains, sur les terrains plurilingues de différentes villes.

The Proceedings from Halophiles 2013, the International Congress on Halophilic Microorganisms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195701 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-570-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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The Halophiles 2013 meeting is a multidisciplinary international congress, with a strong history of regular triennial meetings since 1978. Our mission is to bring researchers from a wide diversity of investigation interests (e.g., protein and species evolution; niche adaptation, ecology, taxonomy, genomics, metagenomics, horizontal gene transfer, gene regulation; DNA replication, repair and recombination; signal transduction; community assembly and species distribution; astrobiology; biotechnological applications; adaptation to radiation, desiccation, osmotic stress) into a single forum for the integration and synthesis of ideas and data from all three domains of life, and their viruses, yet from a single environment; salt concentrations greater than seawater. This cross-section of research informs our understanding of the microbiological world in many ways. The halophilic environment is extreme, especially above 10% NaCl, restricting life solely to microbes. The microorganisms that live there are adapted to extreme conditions, and are notable for their ability to survive high doses of radiation and desiccation. Therefore, the hypersaline environment is a model system (both the abiotic, and biologic factors) for insightful understanding regarding conditions and life in the absence of plant and animals (e.g., life on the early earth, and other solar system bodies like Mars and Europa). Lower salinity conditions (e.g., 6-10% NaCl) form luxuriant microbial mats considered modern analogues of fossilized stromatolites, which are enormous microbially produced structures fashioned during the Precambrian (and still seen today in places like Shark’s Bay, Australia). Hypersaline systems are island-like habitats spread patchily across the earth’s surface, and similar to the Galapagos Islands represent unique systems excellent for studying the evolutionary pressures that shape microbial community assembly, adaptation, and speciation. The unique adaptations to this extreme environment produce valuable proteins, enzymes and other molecules capable of remediating harsh human instigated environments, and are useful for the production of biofuels, vitamins, and retinal implants, for example. This research topic is intended to capture the breadth and depth of these topics.

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