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Movimentos da hesitação: deslizamentos do dizer em sujeitos com doença de Parkinson

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ISBN: 9788579836640 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.7476/9788579836640 Language: Portuguese
Publisher: SciELO Books - Editora UNESP
Added to DOAB on : 2016-07-17 17:27:17
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Hesitações são bastante frequentes no discurso de parkinsonianos e seriam decorrentes, para a literatura biomédica, de aspectos orgânicos alterados pela doença. Os autores, porém, se questionam: seriam os aspectos orgânicos os únicos a explicarem sua ocorrência no discurso de parkinsonianos? Baseados na Linguística, campo no qual as hesitações são vistas como um fenômeno presente em qualquer condição de uso da linguagem, os autores procuram demonstrar que o funcionamento das hesitações no discurso de parkinsonianos supõe não apenas a ação dos aspectos orgânicos, mas, também, dos aspectos linguístico-discursivos da linguagem.

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HEALTH & FITNESS

Undergraduate Education for Public Health in the United States

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196111 Year: Pages: 81 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-611-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Undergraduate programs in public health are growing rapidly. At colleges and universities throughout the United States, both the number of programs and the number of students have expanded greatly in the past decade. In response to this trend, the Council for Education of Public Health (CEPH) has begun to accredit undergraduate public health programs, with the first programs approved in 2014. Around the country programs exhibit wide variation, from concentrations in liberal arts colleges to pre-clinical foundations at doctorate-granting universities to undergraduate programs in accredited schools of public health. Faculty, both new and seasoned, are fully aware of the need to integrate undergraduate education in public health with graduate education—but the roadmaps of exactly how to do so are still nascent. The purpose of this Research Topic is to gather articles describing this variation, with the intent that the collective body of work will facilitate analysis and discussion of what makes a quality education and builds a competent workforce.

Never-resting microglia: physiological roles in the healthy brain and pathological implications

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193691 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-369-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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Microglia are largely known as the major orchestrators of the brain inflammatory response. As such, they have been traditionally studied in various contexts of disease, where their activation has been assumed to induce a wide range of detrimental effects. In the last few years, a series of discoveries have challenged the current view of microglia, showing their active and positive contribution to normal brain function. This Research Topic reviewed the novel physiological roles of microglia in the developing, mature and aging brain, under non-pathological conditions. In particular, this Research Topic discussed the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which microglia contribute to the formation, pruning and plasticity of synapses; the regulation of adult neurogenesis as well as hippocampal learning and memory; among other important roles. Because these novel findings defy our understanding of microglial function in health as much as in disease, this Research Topic also summarized the current view of microglial nomenclature, phenotypes, origin and differentiation, and contribution to various brain pathologies. Additionally, novel imaging approaches and molecular tools to study microglia in their non-activated state have been discussed. In conclusion, this Research Topic sought to emphasize how the current research in neuroscience is challenged by never-resting microglia.

Antimicrobial peptides and Complement - Maximising the inflammatory response

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197378 Year: Pages: 157 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-737-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Antimicrobial peptides and complement are distinct components of the innate immune defence. While antimicrobial peptides, after cleavage of a preproprotein, have the ability to insert directly in non host membranes, complement requires a sequential enzymatic activation in the fluid phase in order to produce a transmembrane membrane attack complex. Its insertion is controlled by membrane bound regulators. Deficiencies are described for both effectors and relate to increased susceptibility of infection. In addition, however, antimicrobial peptides and complement each influence the activity of inflammatory cells as recent data in the respective research areas shows. This series of articles draws together for the entities of antimicrobial peptides and complement a balance of contributions in the areas of evolution, roles, functions and preclinical applications. By comparing and contrasting antimicrobial peptides and complement, greater cross-disciplinary appreciation will be derived for their individual and overlapping spectra of activity, circumstances of activation and their general ability to more completely inform the inflammatory and cellular response.

Emerging Zoonoses: Eco-Epidemiology, Involved Mechanisms and Public Health Implications

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196180 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-618-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-02 10:49:06
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Zoonoses are currently considered as one of the most important threats for public health worldwide. Zoonoses can be defined as any disease or infection that is naturally transmissible from vertebrate or invertebrate animals to humans and vice-versa. Approximately 75% of recently emerging infectious diseases affecting humans are diseases of animal origin; approximately 60% of all human pathogens are zoonotic. All types of potential pathogenic agents, including viruses, parasites, bacteria and fungi, can cause these zoonotic infections. From the wide range of potential vectors of zoonoses, insects are probably those of major significance due to their abundance, high plasticity and adaptability to different kinds of pathogens, high degrees of synanthropism in several groups and difficulties to apply effective programs of population control. Although ticks, flies, cockroaches, bugs and fleas are excellent insects capable to transmit viruses, parasites and bacteria, undoubtedly mosquitoes are the most important disease vectors. Mosquito borne diseases like malaria, dengue, equine encephalitis, West Nile, Mayaro or Chikungunya are zoonoses with increasing incidence in last years in tropical and temperate countries. Vertebrates can also transmit serious zoonoses, highlighting the role of some carnivorous animals in rabies dissemination or the spread of rodent borne diseases in several rural and urban areas. Moreover, the significance of other food borne zoonoses such as taeniasis, trichinellosis or toxoplasmosis may not been underestimated. According to WHO, FAO and OIE guidelines an emerging zoonotic disease can be defined as a zoonosis that is newly recognized or newly evolved, or that has occurred previously but shows an increase of incidence or expansion in geographical, host or vector range. There are many factors that can provoke or accelerate the emergence of zoonoses, such as environmental changes, habitat modifications, variations of human and animal demography, pathogens and vectors anomalous mobilization related with human practices and globalization, deterioration of the strategies of vector control or changes in pathogen genetics. To reduce public health risks from zoonoses is absolutely necessary to acquire an integrative perspective that includes the study of the complexity of interactions among humans, animals and environment in order to be able to fight against these issues of primary interest for human health. In any case, although zoonoses represent significant public health threats, many of them still remain as neglected diseases and consequently are not prioritized by some health international organisms.

How aging affects T lymphocyte-mediated immunity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194186 Year: Pages: 77 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-418-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Increasing age has been associated with an insufficient protection following vaccination and an increased incidence and severity of infectious diseases. The predicted acceleration of global population aging will accentuate the need to understand the mechanisms that drive the age-related decline of the immune system and to, eventually, identify strategies to lower the burden of infectious diseases in elderly people. One type of immune cell appears to be most dramatically affected by the aging process: T lymphocytes. Age-related changes of the bone marrow and the thymus microenvironment lead to a decreased thymic output of functional, naïve T lymphocytes. As T lymphocytes are key players of the adaptive immune system, this research topic will summarize our current understanding on how aging affects the microenvironmental niches and molecular networks that are important for the generation, survival and function of naïve, memory and effector T lymphocytes. This research topic will also address the impact of aging on the different T lymphocyte lineages, such as regulatory T cells and Th17 cells and how age-related changes of the microenvironment affect organ- and tissue-resident memory T lymphocytes. Eventually, the identification of a set of markers for immunosenescence would facilitate the design and application of more specific therapies and improved vaccines and vaccination strategies for elderly people, thereby increasing life and health span.

Global health issues of aflatoxins in food and agriculture: Challenges and opportunities

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195442 Year: Pages: 113 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-544-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Medicine (General) --- Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Aflatoxins are a group of polyketide mycotoxins that are produced mainly by members of the genus Aspergillus. Production of these toxic secondary metabolites is closely related to fungal development (Keller et al., 2005; Jamali et al., 2012). Contamination of food, feed and agricultural commodities by aflatoxins poses enormous economic and serious health concerns because these chemicals are highly carcinogenic and can directly influence the structure of DNA. The resulting genetic defects can lead to fetal misdevelopment and miscarriages; aflatoxins are also known to suppress immune systems (Razzaghi-Abyaneh et al., 2013). In a global context, aflatoxin contamination is a constant concern between the 35N and 35S latitude where developing countries are mainly situated. With expanding boundaries of developing countries, aflatoxin contamination has become a persistent problem to those emerging areas (Shams-Ghahfarokhi et al., 2013). The continuing threat by aflatoxin contamination of food, feed and agricultural commodities to the world population has made aflatoxin research one of the most exciting and rapidly developing study areas of microbial toxins. The present research topic includes six review articles, three mini reviews and four original research articles. Contributors highlight current global health issues arising from aflatoxins and aflatoxigenic fungi and cover important aspects of aflatoxin research including contamination of crops, epidemiology, molecular biology and management strategies. Special attention is given to fungus-plant host interactions, biodiversity and biocontrol, sexual recombination in aflatoxigenic aspergilli, potential biomarkers for aflatoxin exposure in humans and safe storage programs.

Dual-Use Life Science Research and Biosecurity in the 21st Century: Social, Technical, Policy, and Ethical Challenges

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195688 Year: Pages: 95 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-568-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Public Health --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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In September 2011, scientists announced new experimental findings that would not only threaten the conduct and publication of influenza research, but would have significant policy and intelligence implications. The findings presented a modified variant of the H5N1 avian influenza virus (hereafter referred to as the H5N1 virus) that was transmissible via aerosol between ferrets. These results suggested a worrisome possibility: the existence of a new airborne and highly lethal H5N1 virus that could cause a deadly global pandemic. In response, a series of international discussions on the nature of dual-use life science arose. These discussions addressed the complex social, technical, political, security, and ethical issues related to dual-use research. This Research Topic will be devoted to contributions that explore this matrix of issues from a variety of case study and international perspectives.

Developments in Bovine Immunology - An Integrated View

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196326 Year: Pages: 112 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-632-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The world’s population is predicted to hit 9 Billion by 2050, and with it food demand is predicted to increase substantially. The World Bank estimates that cereal and meat production needs to increase by 50% and 85% respectively between 2000 and 2030 to meet demand, putting serious pressure on the global agricultural industry. Critical to meeting this demand for food are mechanisms to reduce the incidence of animal disease. With in excess of 1.3 billion cattle globally, the total cost of infectious diseases is difficult to estimate. However in North America alone, the cost is predicted to be $18 billion annually. Non-infectious diseases also account for another major impediment to the production capacity and welfare of animals as well as the economic sustainability of farming. However animal diseases have implications that spread far beyond the farm gate. Infectious agents can also contaminate the food chain, and potentially affect human health. Controlling diseases, through better preventative and treatment methods requires a detailed understanding of the immune response in livestock species. Multiple studies have identified associations between variation in immune genes and disease susceptibility, which potentially opens up new avenues to select animals with superior disease resistance. Detailed understanding of immunity in cattle is leading to the design of more effective vaccines. Furthermore, appreciation of the significant differences between rodent and human immune responses has also led to bovine models being developed for some human diseases. The publication of the bovine genome and the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies have facilitated a massive expansion in our knowledge of the immune response in cattle. As a result there has been an explosion of exciting research findings including in metagenomics and epigenetics. Recently, there has been a welcome move to integrate our emerging understanding of the immune response with detailed studies of other important physiological processes including nutrition and reproduction. The interactions between the reproductive system, nutrition and the immune system are of particular interest, since each places significant demands on the animal at various stages through the production cycle. The interplay between these morphologically diffuse systems involves widely distributed chemical signals in response to environmental input, and each system must interact for the normal functioning of the other. A comprehensive “systems” approach is improving our understanding of normal physiological interactions between these systems and furthermore, how dysregulation can lead to disease. The successful translation of bovine immunological research into improved treatments for animal disease requires tight interaction between diverse scientific and clinical disciplines including immunology, microbiology, endocrinology, physiology, nutrition, reproduction and clinical veterinary medicine. With so much recent progress in the field, we believe that it is valuable and well-timed to review the broad variety of the relevant studies that attempt to increase our understanding through comprehensive collaboration between these disciplines. We are looking forward to a wide and vivid discussion of developments in bovine immunology and related issues, and we expect that our readers profoundly benefit from new exciting insights and fruitful collaborations.

Changing the landscape: Core Curriculum on Disability Rights for Undergraduate Law Students in Africa

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ISBN: 9781920538415 Year: Pages: 187 Language: English
Publisher: Pretoria University Law Press (PULP)
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-09 12:13:04
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About the publicationThis Core Curriculum on Disability Rights for Undergraduate Law Students in Africa has been developed as part of a broader initiative to foster and strengthen knowledge and awareness about and interest in the rights of persons with disabilities among lawyers in Africa. This initiative, the ‘Disability Rights and Law Schools in Africa Project’ was supported by the Open Society Foundations, initially the Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa (OSISA) and later complemented by the Higher Education Support Programme (HESP) and the Human Rights Initiative (HRI). For the avoidance of doubt, the curriculum is written with the aim of being delivered to learners undertaking legal studies.It has been designed to assist law faculties in Africa to develop and teach undergraduate courses on disability rights in Africa. The Curriculum, which contains practical examples, notes for lecturers and student activities, may be adapted to suit the circumstances of particular law schools. It will be available as an online resource, to which interested persons may contribute, in order to to keep it updated and relevant.About the editors:The Pretoria University Law Press (PULP) is based at the Faculty of Law, University of Pretoria, South Africa. PULP endeavours to publish and make available innovative, high-quality scholarly texts on law in Africa. PULP also publishes a series of collections of legal documents related to public law in Africa, as well as text books from African countries other than South Africa.Table of ContentsIntroduction to the curriculumModule 1: Introduction to disability rightsModule 2: Protection of disability rights - global frameworkModule 3: Protection of disability rights under African regional and national lawModule 4: Non-discrimination against people with disabilitiesModule 5: Right to healthModule 6: Participation in political and public lifeModule 7: EmploymentModule 8: The right to educationModule 9: Vulnerabilities and inter-sectionalitesModule 10: Legal capacity law and policyModule 11: Access to justiceModule 12: National implementation and monitoring of disability rights

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