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Toxicology Studies - Cells, Drugs and Environment

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ISBN: 9789535121404 9789535142201 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.5772/58714 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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The increased exposure to toxins, toxicants and novel drugs has promoted toxicology to become one of the most important areas of research with emerging innovative toxicity testing protocols, techniques, and regulation being placed. Since the bioactivation of many toxins and toxicants and its consequences on human health are not clearly known, this book offers a quick overview of cellular toxicology through the cell, drug and environmental toxicity. This book does not strive to be comprehensive but instead offers a quick overview of principle aspects of toxins and toxicants in order to familiarize the key principles of toxicology. The book is divided into three main sections,; the first one discusses the role of mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and mitochondrial drug development. The second and third sections bring light to forensic toxicology and drug poisoning followed by environmental toxicity.

Drug Discovery and Development - From Molecules to Medicine

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789535121282 9789535142225 Year: Pages: 330 DOI: 10.5772/58659 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:09

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It is very important for scientists all over the globe to enhance drug discovery research for better human health. This book demonstrates that various expertise are essential for drug discovery including synthetic or natural drugs, clinical pharmacology, receptor identification, drug metabolism, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic research. The following 5 sections cover diverse chapter topics in drug discovery: Natural Products as Sources of Leading Molecules in Drug Discovery; Oncology and Drug Discovery; Receptors Involvement in Drug Discovery; Management and Development of Drugs against Infectious Diseases; Advanced Methodology.

The Emerging Discipline of Quantitative Systems Pharmacology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196425 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-642-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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In 2011, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), in collaboration with leaders from the pharmaceutical industry and the academic community, published a white paper describing the emerging discipline of Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP), and recommended the establishment of NIH-supported interdisciplinary research and training programs for QSP. QSP is still in its infancy, but has tremendous potential to change the way we approach biomedical research. QSP is really the integration of two disciplines that have been increasingly useful in biomedical research; “Systems Biology” and “Quantitative Pharmacology”. Systems Biology is the field of biomedical research that seeks to understand the relationships between genes and biologically active molecules to develop qualitative models of these systems; and Quantitative Pharmacology is the field of biomedical research that seeks to use computer aided modeling and simulation to increase our understanding of the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of drugs, and to aid in the design of pre-clinical and clinical experiments. The purpose of QSP modeling is to develop quantitative computer models of biological systems and disease processes, and the effects of drug PK and PD on those systems. QSP models allow testing of numerous potential experiments “in-silico” to eliminate those associated with a low probability of success, avoiding the potential costs of evaluating all of those failed experiments in the real world. At the same time, QSP models allow us to develop our understanding of the interaction between drugs and biological systems in a more systematic and rigorous manner. As the need to be more cost-efficient in the use of research funding increases, biomedical researchers will be required to gain the maximum insight from each experiment that is conducted. This need is even more acute in the pharmaceutical industry, where there is tremendous competition to develop innovative therapies in a highly regulated environment, combined with very high research and development (R&D) costs for bringing new drugs to market (~$1.3 billion/drug). Analogous modeling & simulation approaches have been successfully integrated into other disciplines to improve the fundamental understanding of the science and to improve the efficiency of R&D (e.g., physics, engineering, economics, etc.). The biomedical research community has been slow to integrate computer aided modeling & simulation for many reasons: including the perception that biology and pharmacology are “too complex” and “too variable” to be modeled with mathematical equations; a lack of adequate graduate training programs; and the lack of support from government agencies that fund biomedical research. However, there is an active community of researchers in the pharmaceutical industry, the academic community, and government agencies that develop QSP and quantitative systems biology models and apply them both to better characterize and predict drug pharmacology and disease processes; as well as to improve efficiency and productivity in pharmaceutical R&D.

Enzymes and Their Biotechnological Applications

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ISBN: 9783038421481 9783038421474 Year: Pages: 468 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-147-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-12 12:11:22
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