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Uma ciência sobre “coisa” alguma: relações funcionais, comportamento e cultura

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ISBN: 9788579836572 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.7476/9788579836572 Language: Portuguese
Publisher: SciELO Books - Editora UNESP
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-10-15 12:30:52
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Embora seu conteúdo seja do interesse de áreas vizinhas, como Antropologia, Filosofia, Sociologia e Biologia, o livro está situado no âmbito da Análise Comportamental da Cultura. Essa área representa um campo temático relevante no contexto de uma das mediações teórico-epistemológicas da Psicologia e é constituída por uma ciência, a Análise do Comportamento, e uma filosofia de ciência, o Behaviorismo Radical. O texto, mais precisamente, está centrado nas práticas culturais, que se referem às ações humanas executadas de maneira entrelaçada com ações de outros indivíduos, característica inerente aos comportamentos sociais. Tecnicamente, o conteúdo examinado é o anunciado no subtítulo do livro, ou seja: relações funcionais, comportamento e cultura. No entanto, para além dessa instância, o texto trata da lógica subjacente às relações ou interações entre as pessoas, e entre estas e as agências de controle (como governo, lei e religião), ocupando-se de examinar tais relações de maneira funcional. Pode-se dizer que o texto, paralelamente ao interesse por precisão técnica na ciência do comportamento, busca estimular o leitor para uma avaliação sobre quanto temos, tradicionalmente, construído pressupostos, princípios, sistemas explicativos, escolas de pensamento e teorias voltados à defesa de explicações do comportamento humano com base em estruturas, quer físicas, quer conceituais, que não passam de constructos hipotéticos que se supõe sejam diretamente causadores de ações, atividades, comportamentos. Conceber uma “estrutura cognitiva”, uma “mente pensante”, uma “estrutura de personalidade”, um ego, um eu, um id, um superego, um traço de caráter, uma estrutura fisiológica, enfim, um mecanismo subjacente responsável pela causalidade primeira do comportamento parece constituir um equívoco perene na história da Psicologia e, talvez mais, na história da ciência. Embora sem, naturalmente, negar um monismo fisicalista, ontológico, de substância, o livro rejeita o status prioritário de importância tradicionalmente atribuído às estruturas, em si mesmas, como entes explicativos do comportamento humano.

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PSYCHOLOGY

(Des)encontros trabalho-família: narrativas de familiares de trabalhadores migrantes do setor de produção de energia hidrelétrica

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ISBN: 9788579837012 Year: Pages: 237 DOI: 10.7476/9788579837012 Language: Portuguese
Publisher: SciELO Books - Editora UNESP
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-10-22 11:17:41
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O livro convida o leitor a se aventurar no universo dos barrageiros por meio das narrativas de vida, desvelando que os empreendimentos hidrelétricos brasileiros não geraram apenas impacto ambiental, mas um processo de desenraizamento e rupturas socioafetivas que produziram distintos modos de ser-trabalhar-viver. A desterritorialização principiada por esses projetos integram um ideário desenvolvimentista e de progresso que ocultam o avesso dessa história. Na relatividade do dentro e fora do labor, verificou-se o tempo de trabalho e de vida capazes tanto de interditar a existência em sua potência criadora quanto de resistir, transformando a subjetividade e a vivência familiar em uma insistente reinvenção.

Keywords

PSYCHOLOGY

Neuroscience perspectives on Security: Technology, Detection, and Decision Making

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196005 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-600-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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In security science, efficient operation depends typically on the interaction between technology, human and machine detection and human and machine decision making. A perfect example of this interplay is ‘gatekeeping’, which is aimed to prevent the passage of people and objects that represent known threats from one end to the other end of an access point. Gatekeeping is most often achieved via visual inspections, mass screening, random sample probing and/or more targeted controls on attempted passages at points of entry. Points of entry may be physical (e.g. national borders) or virtual (e.g. connection log-ons). Who and what are defined as security threats and the resources available to gatekeepers determine the type of checks and technologies that are put in place to ensure appropriate access control. More often than not, the net performance of technology-aided screening and authentication systems ultimately depends on the characteristics of human operators. Assessing cognitive, affective, behavioural, perceptual and brain processes that may affect gatekeepers while undertaking this task is fundamental. On the other hand, assessing the same processes in those individuals who try to breach access to secure systems (e.g. hackers), and try to cheat controls (e.g. smugglers) is equally fundamental and challenging. From a security standpoint it is vital to be able to anticipate, focus on and correctly interpret the signals connected with such attempts to breach access and/or elude controls, in order to be proactive and to enact appropriate responses. Knowing cognitive, behavioral, social and neural constraints that may affect the security enterprise will undoubtedly result in a more effective deployment of existing human and technological resources. Studying how inter-observer variability, human factors and biology may affect the security agenda, and the usability of existing security technologies, is of great economic and policy interest. In addition, brain sciences may suggest the possibility of novel methods of surveillance and intelligence gathering. This is just one example of a typical security issue that may be fruitfully tackled from a neuroscientific and interdisciplinary perspective. The objective of our Research Topic was to document across relevant disciplines some of the most recent developments, ideas, methods and empirical findings that have the potential to expand our knowledge of the human factors involved in the security process. To this end we welcomed empirical contributions using different methodologies such as those applied in human cognitive neuroscience, biometrics and ethology. We also accepted original theoretical contributions, in the form of review articles, perspectives or opinion papers on this topic. The submissions brought together researchers from different backgrounds to discuss topics which have scientific, applicative and social relevance.

Biased Cognitions & Social Anxiety: Building a Global Framework for Integrating Cognitive, Behavioral, and Neural Processes

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194230 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-423-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Social anxiety (SA) is a common and incapacitating disorder that has been associated with seriously impaired career, academic, and general social functioning. Regarding epidemiological data, SA has a lifetime prevalence of 12.1% and is the fourth most common psychopathological disorder (Kessler et al., 2005). At a fundamental point of view, the most prominent cognitive models of SA posit that biased cognitions contribute to the development and maintenance of the disorder (e.g., Clark & Wells, 1995; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997). Over the last decades, a large body of research has provided evidence that individuals suffering from SA exhibit such biased cognitions at the level of visual attention, memory of social encounters, interpretation of social events, and in judgment of social cues. Such biased cognitions in SA has been studied in different ways within cognitive psychology, behavioral psychology, clinical psychology, and cognitive neuroscience over the last few decades, yet, integrative approaches for channeling all information into a unified account of biased cognitions in SA has not been presented so far. The present Research Topic aims to bring together theses different ways, and to highlight findings and methods which can unify research across these areas. In particular, this Research Topic aims to advance the current theoretical models of SA and set the stage for future developments of the field by clarifying and linking theoretical concepts across disciplines.

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2015 (4)