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Cognition across the psychiatric disorder spectrum: From mental health to clinical diagnosis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196531 Year: Pages: 93 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-653-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Psychiatric symptoms are considered to be distributed along a continuum, from good mental health to a diagnosable psychiatric disorder. In the case of psychosis, subclinical psychotic experiences, which can include odd behaviors, strange speech, unusual perceptual experiences and social/emotional withdrawal, are often referred to as schizotypy. Research examining schizotypal traits in non-clinical populations is rapidly expanding. The exploration of schizotypy allows us to identify areas of overlap with psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia and related disorders) at genetic, biological, environmental and psychosocial levels, thus identifying putative risk factors, as well as exploring potentially protective factors. Schizotypy is also a valuable model for exploring cognition as performance is not confounded by issues often present in schizophrenia samples, such as long-term antipsychotic medication usage, social isolation, and recurrent hospitalizations. Investigating cognition is a particularly important area of research as cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia, such as impaired attention, reduced memory and difficulties with executive functions, are a core feature of schizophrenia and strongly related to quality of life and functional outcomes, yet generally respond poorly to current treatment options. The aim of this special Research Topic is to explore the relationship between cognition, schizotypy and the schizophrenia spectrum. The articles in this e-book draw on a variety of perspectives and represent an interesting array of opinions, reviews and empirical studies that begin to answer questions about the similarities and overlaps between schizotypy and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, contributing to our understanding of potential risk factors. Equally important is research that highlights differences between schizotypy and schizophrenia spectrum disorders that may enhance our understanding of potentially protective or adaptive features of schizotypy. Collectively, these articles highlight the exploratory potential of the study of schizotypy, particularly in relation to better understanding cognition across the schizophrenia spectrum.

Madness and Creativity: Yes, No or Maybe?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196708 Year: Pages: 85 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-670-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-04 13:33:42
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The pervasive idea that madness and creativity are intricately linked is one that holds tremendous fascination for both scientists and the general public alike. Although this view was at first largely driven by anecdotal evidence showcasing the manifestation of mental illness in individuals who exhibited extraordinary levels of creativity in various spheres of life, it initiated a strong impetus to empirically investigate the association between mental health and creativity.A variety of approaches (and combinations of approaches) have been adopted to address this association including clinical, personality, psychometric, behavioral, cognitive, historiometric and neuroscientific. Despite the ever accumulating body of evidence over the past six decades investigating this link, what is lacking is a comprehensive overview of the disparate findings from these different approaches that will enable us to address the question of whether there is an empirically founded relationship between creativity and mental illness. And if such a link does exist, what is the nature of this association? The purpose of this Research Topic was to motivate theorists and researchers to answer this question (or at least attempt to do so) given the available evidence thus far. The themes of interest that were open to exploration in view of this topic included:(a) Which mental disorders are positively associated with creativity?(b) Which mental disorders are negatively associated with creativity?(c) The dynamics of information processing biases (positive versus negative) associated with psychiatric and high-risk populations(d) Theories regarding the madness-creativity link(e) Personality-based studies on creativity(f) Creativity, mental illness and the brain(g) Genes and creativity(h) How can studies on neurological populations inform this debate?(i) What are the areas of impact with regard to real world applications and practice?(j) Historical timeline of this question(k) Evolutionary perspectives on the madness-creativity link(l) Methodological problems associated with this field(m) Philosophical issues to bear in mind when investigating this domain(n) The usefulness of the “troubled genius” concept The invitation to contribute was open to all interested academics regardless of whether they were seasoned explorers within this field of study or just beginning to get their feet wet in its murky waters. As a result of adopting this inclusive approach, the contributions showcase a wide variety of perspectives from academic departments and institutions the world over. What is most encouraging is that so many were willing to openly take on the challenge of tackling this difficult question head on. We hope future discussions that follow through as a result of this collective effort will prove to be just as fruitful.

Towards an embodied science of intersubjectivity: Widening the scope of social understanding research

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195299 Year: Pages: 413 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-529-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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An important amount of research effort in psychology and neuroscience over the past decades has focused on the problem of social cognition. This problem is understood as how we figure out other minds, relying only on indirect manifestations of other people's intentional states, which are assumed to be hidden, private and internal. Research on this question has mostly investigated how individual cognitive mechanisms achieve this task. A shift in the internalist assumptions regarding intentional states has expanded the research focus with hypotheses that explore the role of interactive phenomena and interpersonal histories and their implications for understanding individual cognitive processes. This interactive expansion of the conceptual and methodological toolkit for investigating social cognition, we now propose, can be followed by an expansion into wider and deeply-related research questions, beyond (but including) that of social cognition narrowly construed. Our social lives are populated by different kinds of cognitive and affective phenomena that are related to but not exhausted by the question of how we figure out other minds. These phenomena include acting and perceiving together, verbal and non-verbal engagement, experiences of (dis-)connection, management of relations in a group, joint meaning-making, intimacy, trust, conflict, negotiation, asymmetric relations, material mediation of social interaction, collective action, contextual engagement with socio-cultural norms, structures and roles, etc. These phenomena are often characterized by a strong participation by the cognitive agent in contrast with the spectatorial stance typical of social cognition research. We use the broader notion of embodied intersubjectivity to refer to this wider set of phenomena. This Research Topic aims to investigate relations between these different issues, to help lay strong foundations for a science of intersubjectivity – the social mind writ large. To contribute to this goal, we encouraged contributions in psychology, neuroscience, psychopathology, philosophy, and cognitive science that address this wider scope of intersubjectivity by extending the range of explanatory factors from purely individual to interactive, from observational to participatory.

Biased Cognitions & Social Anxiety: Building a Global Framework for Integrating Cognitive, Behavioral, and Neural Processes

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194230 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-423-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Social anxiety (SA) is a common and incapacitating disorder that has been associated with seriously impaired career, academic, and general social functioning. Regarding epidemiological data, SA has a lifetime prevalence of 12.1% and is the fourth most common psychopathological disorder (Kessler et al., 2005). At a fundamental point of view, the most prominent cognitive models of SA posit that biased cognitions contribute to the development and maintenance of the disorder (e.g., Clark & Wells, 1995; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997). Over the last decades, a large body of research has provided evidence that individuals suffering from SA exhibit such biased cognitions at the level of visual attention, memory of social encounters, interpretation of social events, and in judgment of social cues. Such biased cognitions in SA has been studied in different ways within cognitive psychology, behavioral psychology, clinical psychology, and cognitive neuroscience over the last few decades, yet, integrative approaches for channeling all information into a unified account of biased cognitions in SA has not been presented so far. The present Research Topic aims to bring together theses different ways, and to highlight findings and methods which can unify research across these areas. In particular, this Research Topic aims to advance the current theoretical models of SA and set the stage for future developments of the field by clarifying and linking theoretical concepts across disciplines.

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2015 (4)