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The multiple roles of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in nature

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195251 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-525-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance have most commonly been viewed in the context of human use and effects. However, both have co-existed in nature for millennia. Recently the roles of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes have started to be discussed in terms of functions other than bacterial inhibition and protection. This special topic will focus on both the traditional role of antibiotics as warfare mechanisms and their alternative roles and uses within nature such as antibiotics as signals or communication mechanisms, antibiotic selection at low concentrations, the non-specific role of resistance mechanisms in nature: e.g. efflux pumps, evolution of antibiotic resistance and the role of persisters in natural antibiotic resistance.

Keywords

Microbiology --- mobile elements --- Plasmids --- Soil --- Water --- human --- environment --- Standards --- risk

Decision making under uncertainty

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194667 Year: Pages: 143 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-466-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Most decisions in life are based on incomplete information and have uncertain consequences. To successfully cope with real-life situations, the nervous system has to estimate, represent and eventually resolve uncertainty at various levels. A common tradeoff in such decisions involves those between the magnitude of the expected rewards and the uncertainty of obtaining the rewards. For instance, a decision maker may choose to forgo the high expected rewards of investing in the stock market and settle instead for the lower expected reward and much less uncertainty of a savings account. Little is known about how different forms of uncertainty, such as risk or ambiguity, are processed and learned about and how they are integrated with expected rewards and individual preferences throughout the decision making process. With this Research Topic we aim to provide a deeper and more detailed understanding of the processes behind decision making under uncertainty.

Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: Underlying Mechanisms and Potential Targets

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194681 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-468-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Pancreatic Cancer has been and still is one of the deadliest types of human malignancies. The annual mortality rates almost equal incidence rates making this disease virtually universally fatal. The 5-year survival of patients with pancreatic cancer is a dismal 5% or less. Therapeutic strategies are extremely limited with gemcitabine extending the survival by a disappointing few weeks. The failure of several randomized clinical trials in the past decade investigating the therapeutic efficacy of different mono- and combination therapies reflects our limited knowledge of pancreatic cancer biology. In addition, biomarkers for early detection are sorely missing. Several pancreatic cancer risk factors have been identified. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms linking these risk factors to cancer development are poorly understood. Well known possible and probable risk factors for the development of pancreatic cancer are age, smoking, chronic pancreatitis, obesity, and type-2 diabetes mellitus. Age is certainly of the most important risk factors as most cases of pancreatic cancer occur in the elderly population. Smoking ten cigarettes a day increases the risk by 2.6 times and smoking a pack per day increases it by 5 folds. Chronic pancreatitis increases the risk of pancreatic cancer by up to 13 times. Patients with hereditary forms of chronic pancreatitis have an even higher risk. Obesity, a growing global health problem, increases the risk of pancreatic cancer by about 1.5 fold. Type-2 diabetes mellitus is also associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer by at least two-fold. The more recent the onset of diabetes, the stronger the correlation with pancreatic cancer is. In addition, heavy alcohol drinking, a family history of the disease, male gender and African American ethnicity are other risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer is characterized by several genetic alterations including mutations in the Kras proto-oncogene and mutations in the tumor suppressor genes p53 and p16. While Kras mutations are currently thought as early events present in a certain percentage of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs), known precursor lesions of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, mutations in tumor suppressor genes, e.g. p53, seem to accumulate later during progression. In addition, several intracellular signaling pathways are amplified or enhanced, including the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling modules. Overall, these genetic alterations lead to enhanced and sustained proliferation, resistance to cell death, invasive and metastatic potential, and angiogenesis, all hallmarks of cancers. The scope of this Research Topic is to collect data and knowledge of how risk factors increase the risk of initiation/progression of pancreatic cancer. Of particular interest are potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Understanding the molecular mechanisms and driving signaling pathways will ultimately allow the development of targeted interventions to disrupt the risk factor-induced cancer development. This Research Topic is interested in a broad range of risk factors, including genetic and environmental, and welcomes original papers, mini and full reviews, and hypothesis papers. Manuscripts that address the effect of combination of risk factors on pancreatic cancer development and progression are of great interest as well.

Business and Security Sector Reform

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Book Series: SSR Papers ISBN: 9781911529408 Year: Pages: 49 DOI: 10.5334/bbx Language: English
Publisher: Ubiquity Press
Subject: Sociology --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-05 11:21:04
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Challenges to security and human rights involving extractive and other industries are addressed in a framework known as business and human rights (BHR), which shares many challenges and goals with SSR. This paper describes the grounds where BHR and SSR coincide in principles, actors and activities and which synergies can be built on that base. Opportunities for bridging BHR and SSR are drawn from a systematic comparison of case studies on Guinea, Colombia and Papua New Guinea. BHR and SSR should ideally cohere instead of collide.&#xD;

Crosswind stability of vehicles under nonstationary wind excitation

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Technische Mechanik, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 16143914 ISBN: 9783731503767 Year: Volume: 28 Pages: XXI, 178 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000047001 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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This work has studied the crosswind stability of vehicles under nonstationary wind excitation in various scenarios. Railway vehicles running on curved and straight track with varying vehicle speed are studied. Road vehicles are classified into different categories. For each vehicle class, a corresponding worst-case vehicle model has been built. As the wind excitation on the vehicle is a stochastic process, a risk analysis has to be carried out and failure probabilities are computed and analyzed.

Neuropsychopharmacology of Psychosis: Relation of Brain Signals, Cognition and Chemistry

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193356 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-335-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Previous research over the past decades has identified diverse neurobiological underpinnings of psychosis. In particular, by combining a variety of different neuroimaging modalities, it has been shown that psychotic states and the actual transition phase from a clinical high-risk state to established psychosis is characterized by structural, functional and neurochemical changes across different brain regions.Further evidence revealed that maybe not only focal brain abnormalities are characteristic for psychosis but specifically also an abnormal functional integration among various brain areas. Some evidence also suggests that dysfunctional brain connectivity proceeds during the development of psychosis when subjects perform a cognitive task. Notably, altered brain connectivity during cognitive challenges was often found to be associated with psychopathological measures, suggesting a mechanistic relation between functional network integrity and the clinical expression of psychosis.Several works proposed that disordered brain connectivity in psychosis results from abnormal N-methyl- D -aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity, which can be mediated by other neurotransmitter systems such as dopamine or serotonin. Specific chemically mediated changes in synaptic plasticity may contribute to abnormal functional integration among brain regions and in consequence to impaired learning performances and inferences. Model-based connectivity investigations on synaptic signalling demonstrated for example that manipulation of the NMDA or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor system altered synaptic plasticity in healthy volunteers, which was predictive for subjects’ cognitive performance and psychopathology. In patients with psychosis, the activity in the prefrontal cortex during the processing of prediction errors, a specific form of learning, which is conveyed via synaptic connections, was linked with individuals’ formation of delusions. These results fit well with many works suggesting that psychotic symptoms or also drug-induced psychosis-like experiences can be explained by disturbances within a hierarchically organized neuronal network, leading to maladaptive integrations of new incoming evidence and thereby to false formations of prediction errors and false beliefs.In this research topic, we like to cover the most recent neurobiological correlates for early stage psychosis and in particular for the prediction of psychosis by using different neurophysiological measures (e.g. structural and functional MRI, EEG, DTI or PET). Studies exploring effective connectivity or complex brain networks such as small-world properties with techniques like dynamic causal modelling, structural equation modelling, or graph theory analysis are highly appreciated. Very welcome are studies proving a link between clinical features such as psychopathology and cognition, brain signals, and chemistry (also in regard of antipsychotic treatments or substance-induced psychotic states). Moreover, environmental factors that may influence psychosis onset or its’ developmental processes will be brought together with a diversity of different research modalities. We also collect critical reviews, mini-reviews or theoretical reflections from leading international researcher and clinicians in this field. The purpose of our research topic is intended to provide a state-of-the-art cognitive perspective to consider developing psychosis, which might shed more lights into the pathophysiological and neurobiological mechanisms of psychosis.

Contemporary Developments in Child Protection

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ISBN: 9783038421184 9783038420873 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-087-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-09 15:02:36
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Volume 1 "Policy Changes and Challenges" takes as its central theme the ongoing and challenging issues which child protection agencies have to address and the policy and practice initiatives that are developed to try and address these. The volume includes papers on: the relationship between the decline in the rate of ‘unnatural’ deaths and the growth of concern about child abuse in the USA between 1940 and 2005; mandatory reporting; the balance between providing urgent intervention and meeting chronic need; risk and the Public Law Outline in England; the nature and implications of ‘child centred’ policies; the impact of intimate partner and family violence; the intended and unintended consequences of high profile child abuse scandals; developing multi-disciplinary team work in a health setting; and the possibilities of technology-based innovations in prevention programmes.

Contemporary Developments in Child Protection

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ISBN: 9783038421191 9783038420880 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 193 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-088-0
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-09 15:06:21
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Volume 2 "Issues in Child Welfare" is primarily concerned with how best to respond to maltreatment ‘within’ the family and hence has a range of papers which are much more concerned with the area of policy and practice more traditionally framed in terms of ‘child welfare’ and social work with children and families. It also includes a paper on how to respond to child maltreatment and neglect in a large hospital context.

Contemporary Developments in Child Protection

Author:
ISBN: 9783038421207 9783038420897 Year: Volume: 3 Pages: 207 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-089-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-09 15:09:52
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Volume 3 "Broadening Challenges in Child Protection" takes a somewhat broader brief and reflects many of the changes over the past twenty five years in terms of the broadening of concerns from maltreatment within the family to maltreatment in a variety of extra-familial contexts, including: sport, the internet, various institutional settings and is much more concerned with sexual abuse and the challenges for criminal justice and public protection.

Decision-Making Experiments under Philosophical Analysis: Human Choice as a Challenge for Neuroscience

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196685 Year: Pages: 123 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-668-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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This introduction just aims to be a fast foreword to the special topic now turned into an e-book. The Editorial "Decision-Making Experiments under a Philosophical Analysis: Human Choice as a Challenge for Neuroscience" alongside with my opinion article "Neurophilosophical considerations on decision making: Pushing-up the frontiers without disregarding their foundations" play the real role of considering in more details the articles and the whole purpose of this e-book. What I must highlight in this foreword is that our intention with such a project was to deepen into the very foundations of our current paradigms in decision neuroscience and to philosophically moot its foundations and repercussions. Normal Science (a term coined by Philosopher Thomas Kuhn) works under a research consensus among a scientific community: A shared paradigm, consolidated methods, widespread convictions. Pragmatically, winning formulas must be kept, although, not at any cost. What differentiates a gifted and revolutionary scientist from a more bureaucratic colleague is the capacity and willingness of constantly reevaluating, depurating and refining his/her own paradigm. That is best strategy to avoid that a paradigm itself would gradually come under challenge. In my view, some achievements, in this sense, were brought about in our project. The e-book will be inspiring and informative for both neuroscientists that are concerned with the very foundations of their works and for philosophers that are not blind to empirical evidence. Kant once said: “Thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind”. Paraphrasing Kant we could say: Philosophy without science is empty, science without philosophy is blind.

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