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Target Suitability and the Crime Drop

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ISBN: 9781137525024 9781349707058 9781137525017 9781349995905 Year: Pages: 22 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-137-52502-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:04
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Abstract

This is a chapter from The Criminal Act: The Role and Influence of Routine Activity Theory edited by Martin A. Andresen and Graham Farrell. This chapter is available open access under a CC BY license. Target suitability is a cornerstone of Marcus Felson's routine activities approach, and critical in determining crime rates. Recent research identifies reduced target suitability, via improved security, as central to the 'crime drop' experienced in many countries. Studies in different countries show car theft fell with far more and better vehicle security. Yet increases in household security were more modest and do not track burglary's decrease as well. In this chapter, the authors explain that apparent anomaly as due more to an improvement in the quality of household security leading to reduced burglary. It is further suggested that improvements to home insulation in the UK that brought double glazing may have, somewhat inadvertently, introduced better frames and locks for doors and windows, that in turn reduced household burglary.; This is a chapter from The Criminal Act: The Role and Influence of Routine Activity Theory edited by Martin A. Andresen and Graham Farrell. This chapter is available open access under a CC BY license. Target suitability is a cornerstone of Marcus Felson's routine activities approach, and critical in determining crime rates. Recent research identifies reduced target suitability, via improved security, as central to the 'crime drop' experienced in many countries. Studies in different countries show car theft fell with far more and better vehicle security. Yet increases in household security were more modest and do not track burglary's decrease as well. In this chapter, the authors explain that apparent anomaly as due more to an improvement in the quality of household security leading to reduced burglary. It is further suggested that improvements to home insulation in the UK that brought double glazing may have, somewhat inadvertently, introduced better frames and locks for doors and windows, that in turn reduced household burglary.

Keywords

Criminology --- Public safety

Modellbasierte Entwicklung funktional sicherer Hardware nach ISO 26262

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Book Series: Steinbuch Series on Advances in Information Technology / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Technik der Informationsverarbeitung ISSN: 21914737 ISBN: 9783731504429 Year: Volume: 10 Pages: VI, 291 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000049863 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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The compliance with functional safety according to the standard ISO 26262 in context of the increasing electrification of road vehicles is a significant challenge. This work provides a concept and methodology for the model-based development of functional safe hardware. This is characterized by the description of hardware designs, annotation of failure data and performing the demanded safety evaluations.

Abhängigkeit der Exposition von der Zellgröße beim Mobilfunk unter Gewährleistung der Versorgung

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Book Series: Karlsruher Forschungsberichte aus dem Institut für Hochfrequenztechnik und Elektronik ISSN: 18684696 ISBN: 9783731503088 Year: Volume: 76 Pages: XIX, 271 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000044724 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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The influence of the cell size of mobile communication networks onto the exposure to electromagnetic fields is investigated in this work. The exposure is assessed by means of a radio network planning. In a novel approach the path loss for the coverage and the path loss for the exposure are distinguished. The developed model is applied to different wave propagation models and cell structures. The results are discussed.

The Safety and Efficacy of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Development and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196999 Year: Pages: 68 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-699-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Noninvasive brain stimulation (including Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and Transcranial Current Brain Stimulation (TCS)) can be used both experimentally and therapeutically. In the experimental domain TMS can be applied in single pulses to depolarize a small population of neurons in a targeted brain region. This protocol can be used, for example, to map cortical motor outputs, study central motor conduction time, or evaluate the cortical silent period (a measure of intracortical inhibition) all of which are relevant to neurodevelopment. TMS can also be applied in pairs of pulses (paired pulse stimulation, ppTMS) where two pulses are presented in rapid succession to study intracortical inhibition and facilitation. Trains of repeated TMS (rTMS) pulses can be applied at various stimulation frequencies and patterns to modulate local cortical excitability beyond the duration of the stimulation itself. Depending on the parameters of stimulation the excitability can be either facilitated or suppressed. TCS (including Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), alternating current (tACS), and random noise current stimulation (tRNS) also have the potential to modulate cortical excitability and have also been used to study and modulate cortical activity in healthy and patient populations. The after-effects of rTMS and TCS are thought to be related to changes in efficacy (in either the positive or negative direction) of synaptic connections of the neurons being stimulated, thus these techniques have been used to study and modulate cortical plasticity mechanisms in a number of populations. Recently, researchers have begun to apply these techniques to the study of neurodevelopmental mechanisms as well as the pathophysiology and development of novel treatments for neurodevelopmental disorders. Though there is much promise, caution is warranted given the vulnerability of pediatric and clinical populations and the potential that these techniques have to modify circuit development in a cortex that is in a very dynamic state. This Research Topic hopes to provide an opportunity to share ideas across areas (human and animal researchers, clinicians and basic scientists). We are particularly interested in papers that address issues of choosing a protocol (intensity, frequency, location, coil geometry etc.), populations where noninvasive brain stimulation may have direct impact on diagnostics and treatment, as well as the safety and ethics of applying these techniques in pediatric populations. As many may not be aware of the potential and limitations of noninvasive brain stimulation and its use for research and treatment in this area, this Research Topic promises to have broad appeal. Submissions for all Frontiers article types are encouraged.

Cycling Futures

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ISBN: 9781925261172 Year: Pages: 472 DOI: 10.20851/cycling-futures Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-04 07:50:41
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Australasian researchers, practitioners, policy makers and community members are engaged in a global discussion on the role of cycling in addressing these concerns. Contributors to this book report on and extend this discussion as they explore the insights generated locally and internationally on the past, present and future of cycling. The focus of the first half of the book is largely on the current engagement with cycling, challenges faced by existing and would-be cyclists and the issues cycling might address. The second half of the book is concerned with strategies and processes of change. Contributors working from different ontological positions reflect on changing socio-spatial relations to enable the broadest possible participation in cycling.'

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