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Topics in Public Health

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ISBN: 9789535121329 9789535142218 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.5772/58484 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Public health has been defined as the efforts of a community that allow a population to remain healthy. This definition is very inclusive, so elements of clinical care, health promotion and many other fields contribute to the larger discipline of public health. The profession has evolved in recent years, with the emphasis in the developed world changing from the hygiene method for control of infectious diseases to a more complex approach to address chronic disease. However, the focus in public health continues to be the population. This book provides a sample of fields that contribute to the public health profession. Its broad approach provides examples of the core fields of public health, including environmental health, epidemiology, biostatistics, health administration, and health behavior.

Health of People, Places and Planet. Reflections based on Tony McMichael’s four decades of contribution to epidemiological understanding

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781925022407 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_578872 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-06 11:01:13
License: ANU Press

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This book has three main goals. The first is to celebrate the work of a great public health figure, the late A.J. (Tony) McMichael (1942–2014). The second is to position contemporary public health issues in an interdisciplinary context and in ways that highlight the interdependency between the environment, human institutions and behaviours; a broad approach championed by Tony. The third is to encourage emerging and future public health leaders to advocate for policies and cultural change to sustain and improve human health, from a foundation of objective scholarship. The book’s foreword and 38 chapters were written by people who were inspired by Tony; many of whom worked with him at some point in the last 40 years. Its structure reflects five major public health domains, each of which Tony made major contributions to in an extremely productive academic life: occupational health and safety; environmental and social epidemiology; nutrition and food systems; climate change and health; and ecosystem change and infectious disease. The final section, ‘Transformation’, is dedicated to Tony’s desire for public health scientists to propose adaptive and mitigating solutions to the problems they were observing. Each section contains at least one key publication involving Tony. There is also a selection of artworks from an exhibition which formed part of the conference held to honour Tony at The Australian National University in 2012. This conference formed the first part of Tony’s festschrift, completed by this book.

Quo Vadis, Medicus? Health Behaviour Among Health Professionals and Students

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ISBN: 9783110472172 9783110470758 Year: Pages: 136 DOI: 10.1515/9783110472172 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Public Health --- Sports Science --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-06 16:44:01
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The book discusses the health condition of Polish current and future health professionals. The study was conducted on around 800 medical staff members (in-training and professional). The author analyses nutrition behaviour, physical activity, smoking, drinking alcohol and their psycho-social determinants (health self-assessment, value of health, health locus of control, health related self-efficacy). The educational and behavioural needs of the investigated group depend on career stage and profession.As a result, there is a need for health promotional programs targeting carefully chosen medical staff groups, with an emphasis on their special health needs. The expectation that physicians or other medical professionals will heal themselves proves to be futile in this part of Europe. This should be a starting point in a discussion about the role of health providers in modelling health behaviours and health promotion counselling for their patients. Reflection is needed especially among health related professionals in different institutions (e.g., universities, schools, hospitals), health societies and non-profit organisations involved in health promotion, insurance and health companies.

Undergraduate Education for Public Health in the United States

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196111 Year: Pages: 81 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-611-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Undergraduate programs in public health are growing rapidly. At colleges and universities throughout the United States, both the number of programs and the number of students have expanded greatly in the past decade. In response to this trend, the Council for Education of Public Health (CEPH) has begun to accredit undergraduate public health programs, with the first programs approved in 2014. Around the country programs exhibit wide variation, from concentrations in liberal arts colleges to pre-clinical foundations at doctorate-granting universities to undergraduate programs in accredited schools of public health. Faculty, both new and seasoned, are fully aware of the need to integrate undergraduate education in public health with graduate education—but the roadmaps of exactly how to do so are still nascent. The purpose of this Research Topic is to gather articles describing this variation, with the intent that the collective body of work will facilitate analysis and discussion of what makes a quality education and builds a competent workforce.

The Territory of Medical Research: Experimentation in Africa’s Smallest State (Book chapter)

Book title: Para-States and Medical Science: Making African Global Health

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Book Series: Critical Global Health: Evidence, Efficacy, Ethnography ISBN: 9780822357353 9780822357490 Year: Pages: 376 Language: English
Publisher: Duke University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 077430, 081507
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology --- Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:01:04
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In Para-States and Medical Science, P. Wenzel Geissler and the contributors examine how medicine and public health in Africa have been transformed as a result of economic and political liberalization and globalization, intertwined with epidemiological and technological changes. The resulting fragmented medical science landscape is shaped and sustained by transnational flows of expertise and resources. NGOs, universities, pharmaceutical companies and other nonstate actors now play a significant role in medical research and treatment. But as the contributors to this volume argue, these groups have not supplanted the primacy of the nation-state in Africa. Although not necessarily stable or responsive, national governments remain crucial in medical care, both as employers of health care professionals and as sources of regulation, access, and – albeit sometimes counterintuitively - trust for their people. “The state” has morphed into the “para-state” — not a monolithic and predictable source of sovereignty and governance, but a shifting, and at times ephemeral, figure. Tracing the emergence of the “global health” paradigm in Africa in the treatment of HIV, malaria, and leprosy, this book challenges familiar notions of African statehood as weak or illegitimate by elaborating complex new frameworks of governmentality that can be simultaneously functioning and dysfunctional.

Keywords

africa --- medicine --- public health

Introduction: A Life Science in Its African Para-State (Book chapter)

Book title: Para-States and Medical Science: Making African Global Health

Author:
Book Series: Critical Global Health: Evidence, Efficacy, Ethnography ISBN: 9780822357353 9780822357490 Year: Pages: 376 Language: English
Publisher: Duke University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 077430, 081507
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology --- Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:01:04
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In Para-States and Medical Science, P. Wenzel Geissler and the contributors examine how medicine and public health in Africa have been transformed as a result of economic and political liberalization and globalization, intertwined with epidemiological and technological changes. The resulting fragmented medical science landscape is shaped and sustained by transnational flows of expertise and resources. NGOs, universities, pharmaceutical companies and other nonstate actors now play a significant role in medical research and treatment. But as the contributors to this volume argue, these groups have not supplanted the primacy of the nation-state in Africa. Although not necessarily stable or responsive, national governments remain crucial in medical care, both as employers of health care professionals and as sources of regulation, access, and – albeit sometimes counterintuitively - trust for their people. “The state” has morphed into the “para-state” — not a monolithic and predictable source of sovereignty and governance, but a shifting, and at times ephemeral, figure. Tracing the emergence of the “global health” paradigm in Africa in the treatment of HIV, malaria, and leprosy, this book challenges familiar notions of African statehood as weak or illegitimate by elaborating complex new frameworks of governmentality that can be simultaneously functioning and dysfunctional.

Keywords

africa --- medicine --- public health

What Future Remains? Remembering an African Place of Science (Book chapter)

Book title: Para-States and Medical Science: Making African Global Health

Author:
Book Series: Critical Global Health: Evidence, Efficacy, Ethnography ISBN: 9780822357353 9780822357490 Year: Pages: 376 Language: English
Publisher: Duke University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 077430, 081507
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology --- Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:01:04
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In Para-States and Medical Science, P. Wenzel Geissler and the contributors examine how medicine and public health in Africa have been transformed as a result of economic and political liberalization and globalization, intertwined with epidemiological and technological changes. The resulting fragmented medical science landscape is shaped and sustained by transnational flows of expertise and resources. NGOs, universities, pharmaceutical companies and other nonstate actors now play a significant role in medical research and treatment. But as the contributors to this volume argue, these groups have not supplanted the primacy of the nation-state in Africa. Although not necessarily stable or responsive, national governments remain crucial in medical care, both as employers of health care professionals and as sources of regulation, access, and – albeit sometimes counterintuitively - trust for their people. “The state” has morphed into the “para-state” — not a monolithic and predictable source of sovereignty and governance, but a shifting, and at times ephemeral, figure. Tracing the emergence of the “global health” paradigm in Africa in the treatment of HIV, malaria, and leprosy, this book challenges familiar notions of African statehood as weak or illegitimate by elaborating complex new frameworks of governmentality that can be simultaneously functioning and dysfunctional.

Keywords

africa --- medicine --- public health

Antioxidants in Health and Disease

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781466580039 Year: Pages: 341 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Public Health --- Chemical Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-07-24 23:59:23
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Antioxidants in Health and Disease discusses the effects of dietary antioxidants and antioxidant supplementation in humans. It reviews the latest evidence-based research in the area, principally through prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials. The book assesses major dietary antioxidants and discusses their use in diseases such as cancer, diabetes, stroke, coronary heart disease, HIV/AIDS, and neurodegenerative and immune diseases. The use of antioxidants in health is also discussed along with common adverse effects associated with antioxidant use. Separating myth from fact, this book gives you insight into the true role of antioxidants in health and disease.

Keywords

Antioxidants --- Disease --- Health

A Life Course Perspective on Health Trajectories and Transitions

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Life Course Research and Social Policies ISSN: 2211-7776 ISBN: 9783319204833 9783319204840 Year: Volume: 4 Pages: 213 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20484-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Biotechnology --- Law --- Social Sciences --- Pharmacy and materia medica --- Manufactures
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-23 12:08:17
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This open access book examines health trajectories and health transitions at different stages of the life course, including childhood, adulthood and later life. It provides findings that assess the role of biological and social transitions on health status over time.The essays examine a wide range of health issues, including the consequences of military service on body mass index, childhood obesity and cardiovascular health, socio-economic inequalities in preventive health care use, depression and anxiety during the child rearing period, health trajectories and transitions in people with cystic fibrosis and oral health over the life course. The book addresses theoretical, empirical and methodological issues as well as examines different national contexts, which help to identify factors of vulnerability and potential resources that support resilience available for specific groups and/or populations.Health reflects the ability of individuals to adapt to their social environment. This book analyzes health as a dynamic experience. It examines how different aspects of individual health unfold over time as a result of aging but also in relation to changing socioeconomic conditions. It also offers readers potential insights into public policies that affect the health status of a population.

Anticipating Prevention (Book chapter)

Book title: Anthropologies of Cancer in Transnational Worlds

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Routledge Studies in Anthropology ISBN: 9781138776937 Year: Pages: 270 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Grant: Wellcome Trust - 084128
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:01:03
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Cancer is a transnational condition involving the unprecedented flow of health information, technologies, and people across national borders. Such movement raises questions about the nature of therapeutic citizenship, how and where structurally vulnerable populations obtain care, and the political geography of blame associated with this disease. This volume brings together cutting-edge anthropological research carried out across North and South America, Europe, Africa and Asia, representing low-, middle- and high-resource countries with a diversity of national health care systems. Contributors ethnographically map the varied nature of cancer experiences and articulate the multiplicity of meanings that survivorship, risk, charity and care entail. They explore institutional frameworks shaping local responses to cancer and underlying political forces and structural variables that frame individual experiences. Of particular concern is the need to interrogate underlying assumptions of research designs that may lead to the naturalizing of hidden agendas or intentions. Running throughout the chapters, moreover, are considerations of moral and ethical issues related to cancer treatment and research. Thematic emphases include the importance of local biologies in the framing of cancer diagnosis and treatment protocols, uncertainty and ambiguity in definitions of biosociality, shifting definitions of patienthood, and the sociality of care and support.

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