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Molecular Function and Regulation of Non-coding RNAs in Multifactorial Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450022 Year: Pages: 71 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-002-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of multifactorial diseases such as diabetes, autism, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer has been greatly advanced. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), generally including microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, have recently been found to have potential roles in these diseases, and provide new opportunities for developing both specific biomarkers and therapeutic targets. However, the molecular function and regulation of these RNAs still remains challenging. Numerous studies are focusing on this field in order to fully appreciate the role and regulation of these molecules in human medicine and biology. This e-book aims to bring together new findings on Non-coding RNAs in different complex diseases. It will highlight the characterization, roles, mechanism, and mode of action of these RNAs in complex disorders. We believe that the publications on this topic would be exponentially extended in future. The improved approaches at multiple levels may pave the way for designing and applying new biomarker and therapeutic targets for specific diseases based on these attractive molecules.

Recent Advances of Epigenetics in Crop Biotechnology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198542 Year: Pages: 189 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-854-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Epigenetics is a new field that explains gene expression at the chromatin structure and organization level. Three principal epigenetic mechanisms are known and hundreds of combinations among them can develop different phenotypic characteristics. DNA methylation, histone modifications and small RNAs have been identified, and their functions are being studied in order to understand the mechanisms of interaction and regulation among the different biological processes in plants. Although, fundamental epigenetic mechanisms in crop plants are beginning to be elucidated, the comprehension of the different epigenetic mechanisms, by which plant gene regulation and phenotype are modified, is a major topic to develop in the near future in order to increase crop productivity. Thus, the importance of epigenetics in improving crop productivity is undoubtedly growing. Current research on epigenetics suggest that DNA methylation, histone modifications and small RNAs are involved in almost every aspect of plant life including agronomically important traits such as flowering time, fruit development, responses to environmental factors, defense response and plant growth. The aim of this Research Topic is to explore the recent advances concerning the role of epigenetics in crop biotechnology, as well as to enhance and promote interactions among high quality researchers from different disciplines such as genetics, cell biology, pathology, microbiology, and evolutionary biology in order to join forces and decipher the epigenetic mechanisms in crop productivity.

Perception, Action, and Cognition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199792 Year: Pages: 169 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-979-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Even as simple a task as quenching thirst with a glass of water involves a sequence of perceptions and actions woven together by expectations and experience. What are the myriad links between perception and action, and what does cognition have to do with them? Intuitively we think that perception precedes action, but we also know that action moulds perception. The reciprocal links between perception and action are now accepted almost universally. The discovery of mirror neurons that encode observed actions has further emphasized the coupling of perception and action. The real aim of this research topic is to go beyond identifying the evidence for perception-action coupling, and study the cognitive entities and processes that influence the perception-action link. For example, the internal representations of perceived and produced events are created and modified through experience. Yet the perception action link is considered relatively automatic. To what extent is the perception-action link affected by representations and their manipulations by cognitive processes? Does selective attention modify the perception action coupling? How, and to what extent, does the context provide sources of cognitive control? The developmental trajectory of the perception-action link and the influence of cognition at various stages of development could be another line of important evidence. The responses to these and other such questions contribute to our understanding of this research area with significant implications for perception-action coupling.

Colour and Form Perception: Straddling the Boundary

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198573 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-857-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Starting from psychophysics, over the last 50 years, most progress in unravelling the mechanisms of color vision has been made through the study of single cell responses, mainly in LGN and striate cortex. A similar development in the study of form perception may seem to be underway, centred on the study of temporal cortex. However, because of the combinatorial characteristics of form perception, we are also observing the opposite tendency: from single-cell activity to population coding, and from static receptive field structures to system dynamics and integration and, ultimately, a synthetic form of psychophysics of color and form perception. From single cells to system integration: it is this development the present Research Topic wishes to highlight and promote. How does this development affect our views on the various attributes of perception? In particular, we are interested in to what extent evolving knowledge in the field of color perception is relevant within a developing integrative framework of form perception. The goal of this Research Topic is to bring together experimental research encompassing both color and form perception. For this volume, we planned a broad scope of topics – on color in complex scenes, color and form, as well as dynamic aspects of form perception. We expect that the Research Topic will be attractive to the community of researchers whose work straddles the boundary between the two visual perception fields, as well as to the wider community interested in integrative/systems neuroscience.

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