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The science of population and birth control in post-war Japan (Book chapter)

Book title: Science, Technology, and Medicine in the Modern Japanese Empire

Author:
ISBN: 9781138905337 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Grant: Wellcome Trust - 085926
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-16 00:08:00
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This essay examines the entanglement between population science and population governance immediately after World War II. It analyzes debates on&#xD;population and birth control research that contributed to the state-endorsed&#xD;birth control campaign. Drawing on the existing works on the campaign as well&#xD;as coproduction theory proposed in science and technology studies (STS), this&#xD;essay depicts how the Japanese state’s post-war birth control policy was&#xD;coproduced with a particular kind of population science that insisted on&#xD;the necessity of birth control for Japan’s post-war reconstruction.

Keywords

birth control --- japan

Modularity in motor control: from muscle synergies to cognitive action representation

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198054 Year: Pages: 792 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-805-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-03 17:04:57
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Mastering a rich repertoire of motor behaviors, as humans and other animals do, is a surprising and still poorly understood outcome of evolution, development, and learning. Many degrees-of-freedom, non-linear dynamics, and sensory delays provide formidable challenges for controlling even simple actions. Modularity as a functional element, both structural and computational, of a control architecture might be the key organizational principle that the central nervous system employs for achieving versatility and adaptability in motor control. Recent investigations of muscle synergies, motor primitives, compositionality, basic action concepts, and related work in machine learning have contributed to advance, at different levels, our understanding of the modular architecture underlying rich motor behaviors. However, the existence and nature of the modules in the control architecture is far from settled. For instance, regularity and low-dimensionality in the motor output are often taken as an indication of modularity but could they simply be a byproduct of optimization and task constraints? Moreover, what are the relationships between modules at different levels, such as muscle synergies, kinematic invariants, and basic action concepts? One important reason for the new interest in understanding modularity in motor control from different viewpoints is the impressive development in cognitive robotics. In comparison to animals and humans, the motor skills of today’s best robots are limited and inflexible. However, robot technology is maturing to the point at which it can start approximating a reasonable spectrum of isolated perceptual, cognitive, and motor capabilities. These advances allow researchers to explore how these motor, sensory and cognitive functions might be integrated into meaningful architectures and to test their functional limits. Such systems provide a new test bed to explore different concepts of modularity and to address the interaction between motor and cognitive processes experimentally. Thus, the goal of this Research Topic is to review, compare, and debate theoretical and experimental investigations of the modular organization of the motor control system at different levels. By bringing together researchers seeking to understand the building blocks for coordinating many muscles, for planning endpoint and joint trajectories, and for representing motor and behavioral actions in memory we aim at promoting new interactions between often disconnected research areas and approaches and at providing a broad perspective on the idea of modularity in motor control. We welcome original research, methodological, theoretical, review, and perspective contributions from behavioral, system, and computational motor neuroscience research, cognitive psychology, and cognitive robotics.

Polymer Reactor Modeling, Design and Monitoring

ISBN: 9783038422549 9783038422556 Year: Pages: X, 204 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-19 11:47:52
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Polymers range from synthetic plastics, such as polyacrylates, to natural biopolymers, such as proteins and DNA. The large molecular mass of polymers and our ability to manipulate their compositions and molecular structures have allowed for producing synthetic polymers with attractive properties. new polymers with remarkable characteristics are synthesized. Because of the huge production volume of commodity polymers, a little improvement in the operation of commodity-polymer processes can lead to significant economic gains. On the other hand, a little improvement in the quality of specialty polymers can lead to substantial increase in economic profits.

Integrating SSR and SALW Programming

Authors: ---
Book Series: SSR Papers ISBN: 9781911529439 Year: Pages: 106 DOI: 10.5334/bca Language: English
Publisher: Ubiquity Press
Subject: Sociology --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-05 11:21:04
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Security sector reform (SSR) and small arms and lights weapons (SALW) reduction and control programmes have become staples of peacebuilding policy and practice in fragile, failed and conflict-affected states (FFCAS). There is wide agreement in the peacebuilding field that the two areas are intricately interconnected and mutually reinforcing. However, this consensus has rarely translated into integrated programming on the ground. Drawing on a diverse set of case studies, this paper presents a renewed argument for robust integration of SSR and SALW programming. The failure to exploit innate synergies between the two areas in the field has not merely resulted in missed opportunities to leverage scarce resources and capacity, but has caused significant programmatic setbacks that have harmed wider prospects for peace and stability. With the SSR model itself in a period of conceptual transition, the time is ripe for innovation. A renewed emphasis on integrating SSR and SALW programming in FFCAS, while not a wholly new idea, represents a potential avenue for change that could deliver significant dividends in the field. The paper offers some preliminary ideas on how to achieve this renewed integration in practice.&#xD;

Automation and Control Trends

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9789535126706 9789535126713 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.5772/61646 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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This book is an overview of the different paths automation and control engineering have taken lately, from a modern point of view. Built up with example chapters, this book provides some insight into the use of artificial intelligence and control theory on manufacturing, comfort analysis, reliability of modern digital systems, and the use of unusual reference and feedback signals as those coming from the brain. Nonetheless, some chapters are also devoted to a more traditional point of view of control theory, addressing complex problems where human intervention must be limited. Overall, this book is an effort to show that modern automation and control engineering are comprised by many diverse areas, which should interact in order to provide a complete result. In this way, as the systems become more complex and the control objectives more subjective, both, formal analytic and intelligent approaches, should be seen as complementary tools, not unrelated competitors. This book&rsquo;s aim is precisely that of showing how broad and diverse the control objectives have become and how the abilities of the control engineer should be extended.

The olivo-cerebellar system

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198269 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-826-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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During the last decades, investigations on the olivo-cerebellar system have attained a high level of sophistication, which led to redefinitions of several structural and functional properties of neurons, synapses, connections and circuits. Research has expanded and deepened in so many directions and so many theories and models have been proposed that an ensemble review of the matter is now needed. Yet, hot topics remain open and scientific discussion is very lively at several fronts. One major question, here as well as in other major brain circuits, is how single neurons and synaptic properties emerge at the network level and contribute to behavioural regulation via neuronal plasticity. Other major aspects that this Research Topic covers and discusses include the development and circuit organization of the olivo-cerebellar network, the established and recent theories of learning and motor control, and the emerging role of the cerebellum in cognitive processing. By touching on such varied and encompassing subjects, this Frontiers Special Topic aims to highlight the state of the art and stimulate future research. We hope that this unique collection of high-quality articles from experts in the field will provide scientists with a powerful basis of knowledge and inspiration to enucleate the major issues deserving further attention.

The Temporal Dynamics of Cognitive Processing

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198887 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-888-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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From our ability to attend to many stimuli occurring in rapid succession to the transformation of memories during a night of sleep, cognition occurs over widely varying time scales spanning milliseconds to days and beyond. Cognitive processing is often influenced by several behavioral variables as well as nonlinear interactions between multiple neural systems. This frequently produces unpredictable patterns of behavior and makes understanding the underlying temporal factors influencing cognition a fruitful area of hypothesis development and scientific inquiry. Across two reviews, a perspective, and twelve original research articles covering the domains of learning, memory, attention, cognitive control, and social decision making this research topic sheds new light on the temporal dynamics of cognitive processing.

Making Things Stick: Surveillance Technologies and Mexico’s War on Crime

Author:
ISBN: 9780520284043 9780520959705 Year: Pages: 270 DOI: 10.1525/luminos.12 Language: English
Publisher: University of California Press
Subject: Law --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-09 11:01:08
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With Mexico’s War on Crime as the backdrop, Making Things Stick offers an innovative analysis of how surveillance technologies impact governance in the global society. More than just tools to monitor ordinary people, surveillance technologies are imagined by government officials as a way to reform the national state by focusing on the material things—cellular phones, automobiles, human bodies—that can enable crime. In describing the challenges that the Mexican government has encountered in implementing this novel approach to social control, Keith Guzik presents surveillance technologies as a sign of state weakness rather than strength and as an opportunity for civic engagement rather than retreat.

Safer Healthcare: Strategies for the Real World

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783319255576 9783319255590 Year: Pages: 157 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-25559-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Pharmacy and materia medica --- Medicine (General) --- Biotechnology --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Business and Management --- Manufactures
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-27 16:39:43
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The authors of this book set out a system of safety strategies and interventions for managing patient safety on a day-to-day basis and improving safety over the long term. These strategies are applicable at all levels of the healthcare system from the frontline to the regulation and governance of the system.There have been many advances in patient safety, but we now need a new and broader vision that encompasses care throughout the patient’s journey. The authors argue that we need to see safety through the patient’s eyes, to consider how safety is managed in different contexts and to develop a wider strategic and practical vision in which patient safety is recast as the management of risk over time. Most safety improvement strategies aim to improve reliability and move closer toward optimal care. However, healthcare will always be under pressure and we also require ways of managing safety when conditions are difficult. We need to make more use of strategies concerned with detecting, controlling, managing and responding to risk. Strategies for managing safety in highly standardised and controlled environments are necessarily different from those in which clinicians constantly have to adapt and respond to changing circumstances.This work is supported by the Health Foundation. The Health Foundation is an independent charity committed to bringing about better health and health care for people in the UK.The charity’s aim is a healthier population in the UK, supported by high quality health care that can be equitably accessed. The Foundation carries out policy analysis and makes grants to front-line teams to try ideas in practice and supports research into what works to make people’s lives healthier and improve the health care system, with a particular emphasis on how to make successful change happen.A key part of the work is to make links between the knowledge of those working to deliver health and health care with research evidence and analysis. The aspiration is to create a virtuous circle, using what works on the ground to inform effective policymaking and vice versa. Good health and health care are vital for a flourishing society. Through sharing what is known, collaboration and building people’s skills and knowledge, the Foundation aims to make a difference and contribute to a healthier population.

Methods for Measuring Greenhouse Gas Balances and Evaluating Mitigation Options in Smallholder Agriculture

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783319297927 9783319297941 Year: Pages: 203 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-29794-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-10 14:23:32
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This book provides standards and guidelines for quantifying greenhouse gas emissions and removals in smallholder agricultural systems and comparing options for climate change mitigation based on emission reductions and livelihood trade-offs. Globally, agriculture is directly responsible for about 11% of annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and induces an additional 17% through land use change, mostly in developing countries. Farms in the developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia are predominately managed by smallholders, with 80% of land holdings smaller than ten hectares. However, little to no information exists on greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potentials in smallholder agriculture. Greenhouse gas measurements in agriculture are expensive, time consuming, and error prone, challenges only exacerbated by the heterogeneity of smallholder systems and landscapes. Concerns over methodological rigor, measurement costs, and the diversity of approaches, coupled with the demand for robust information suggest it is germane for the scientific community to establish standards of measurements for quantifying GHG emissions from smallholder agriculture. Standard guidelines for use by scientists, development organizations will help generate reliable data on emissions baselines and allow rigorous comparisons of mitigation options. The guidelines described in this book, developed by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security (CCAFS) and partners, are intended to inform anyone conducting field measurements of agricultural greenhouse gas sources and sinks, especially to develop IPCC Tier 2 emission factors or to compare mitigation options in smallholder systems.

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