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The Standard Theory of Particle Physics:Essays to Celebrate CERN's 60th Anniversary

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Book Series: Advanced Series on Directions in High Energy Physics ISSN: 17931339 ISBN: 9789814733519 Year: Volume: 26 Pages: 484 DOI: 10.1142/9878 Language: English
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Co.
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-09-06 09:30:00
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The book gives a quite complete and up-to-date picture of the Standard Theory with an historical perspective, with a collection of articles written by some of the protagonists of present particle physics. The theoretical developments are described together with the most up-to-date experimental tests, including the discovery of the Higgs Boson and the measurement of its mass as well as the most precise measurements of the top mass, giving the reader a complete description of our present understanding of particle physics.

A Unifying Theory of Evolution Generated by Means of Information Modelling

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Book Series: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics ISSN: 09269630 18798365 ISBN: 9781614996873 9781614996880 Year: Volume: 230 Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3233/978-1-61499-688-0-i Language: English
Publisher: IOS Press
Subject: Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-08 13:32:57
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"Stringent ways of thinking, ‘conceptual frameworks’, are necessary in science. The drawback is that the associated assumptions, concepts, rules and practice may become so deeply entrenched that they turn into tacit knowledge and hence give rise to constraints in scientific thought and practice – that is, a new kind of plethora that seriously blinds and thereby hampers scientific progress. This book, 'A Unifying Theory of Evolution Generated by Means of Information Modelling', presents a methodology for describing complex knowledge domains. It applies a template information model based on a dynamic structure of interrelated functions, called the Mereon Matrix. Application of this template model to the field of evolutionary theories enabled the unification of the sometimes chaotic and competing field of evolutionary theories, large and small, seamlessly in a shared framework. The author has Masters degrees in both biochemistry and computer science, as well as a European Doctorate and PhD in health informatics and has spent 35 years in full-time research. It is her particular combination of professional experience and expertise together with the template information model which has enabled her to write this book.Whilst primarily aimed at a scientific audience, and evolutionary biologists in particular, the book will be of interest to all those looking for new approaches to exploring and explaining phenomena in nature, and because the text is largely non-technical in nature, much of the content will also be accessible to a wider readership."

Using Noise to Characterize Vision

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197538 Year: Pages: 127 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-753-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Noise has been widely used to investigate the processing properties of various visual functions (e.g. detection, discrimination, attention, perceptual learning, averaging, crowding, face recognition), in various populations (e.g. older adults, amblyopes, migrainers, dyslexic children), using noise along various dimensions (e.g. pixel noise, orientation jitter, contrast jitter). The reason to use external noise is generally not to characterize visual processing in external noise per se, but rather to reveal how vision works in ordinary conditions when performance is limited by our intrinsic noise rather than externally added noise. For instance, reverse correlation aims at identifying the relevant information to perform a given task in noiseless conditions and measuring contrast thresholds in various noise levels can be used to understand the impact of intrinsic noise that limits sensitivity to noiseless stimuli. Why use noise? Since Fechner named it, psychophysics has always emphasized the systematic investigation of conditions that break vision. External noise raises threshold hugely and selectively. In hearing, Fletcher used noise in his famous critical-band experiments to reveal frequency-selective channels in hearing. Critical bands have been found in vision too. More generally, the big reliable effects of noise give important clues to how the system works. And simple models have been proposed to account for the effects of visual noise. As noise has been more widely used, questions have been raised about the simplifying assumptions that link the processing properties in noiseless conditions to measurements in external noise. For instance, it is usually assumed that the processing strategy (or mechanism) used to perform a task and its processing properties (e.g. filter tuning) are unaffected by the addition of external noise. Some have suggested that the processing properties could change with the addition of external noise (e.g. change in filter tuning or more lateral masking in noise), which would need to be considered before drawing conclusions about the processing properties in noiseless condition. Others have suggested that different processing properties (or mechanisms) could be solicited in low and high noise conditions, complicating the characterization of processing properties in noiseless condition based on processing properties identified in noise conditions. The current Research Topic probes further into what the effects of visual noise tell us about vision in ordinary conditions. Our Editorial gives an overview of the articles in this special issue.

Hydro-Ecological Modeling

ISBN: 9783038422396 9783038422129 Year: Pages: XIV, 322 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-02 16:08:50
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Water is not only an interesting object to be studied on its own, it also is an important component driving almost all ecological processes occurring in our landscapes. Plant growth depends on soil water content, as well is nutrient turnover by microbes. Water shapes the environment by erosion and sedimentation. Species occur or are lost depending on hydrological conditions, and many infectious diseases are water-borne.Modeling the complex interactions of water and ecosystem processes requires the prediction of hydrological fluxes and stages on the one side and the coupling of the ecosystem process model on the other. While much effort has been given to the development of the hydrological model theory in recent decades, we have just begun to explore the difficulties that occur when coupled model applications are being set up.

The Evolving Telomeres

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198818 Year: Pages: 74 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-881-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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What controls the different rates of evolution to give rise to conserved and divergent proteins and RNAs? How many trials until evolution can adapt to physiological changes? Every organism has arisen through multiple molecular changes, and the mechanisms that are employed (mutagenesis, recombination, transposition) have been an issue left to the elegant discipline of evolutionary biology. But behind the theory are realities that we have yet to ascertain: How does an evolving cell accommodate its requirements for both conserving its essential functions, while also providing a selective advantage? In this volume, we focus on the evolution of the eukaryotic telomere, the ribo-nuclear protein complex at the end of a linear chromosome. The telomere is an example of a single chromosomal element that must function to maintain genomic stability. The telomeres of all species must provide a means to avoid the attrition from semi-conservative DNA replication and a means of telomere elongation (the telomere replication problem). For example, telomerase is the most well-studied mechanism to circumvent telomere attrition by adding the short repeats that constitutes most telomeres. The telomere must also guard against the multiple activities that can act on an unprotected double strand break requiring a window (or checkpoint) to compensate for telomere sequence loss as well as protection against non-specific processes (the telomere protection problem). This volume describes a range of methodologies including mechanistic studies, phylogenetic comparisons and data-based theoretical approaches to study telomere evolution over a broad spectrum of organisms that includes plants, animals and fungi. In telomeres that are elongated by telomerases, different components have widely different rates of evolution. Telomerases evolved from roots in archaebacteria including splicing factors and LTR-transposition. At the conserved level, the telomere is a rebel among double strand breaks (DSBs) and has altered the function of the highly conserved proteins of the ATM pathway into an elegant means of protecting the chromosome end and maintaining telomere size homeostasis through a competition of positive and negative factors. This homeostasis, coupled with highly conserved capping proteins, is sufficient for protection. However, far more proteins are present at the telomere to provide additional species-specific functions. Do these proteins provide insight into how the cell allows for rapid change without self-destruction?

Neuronal Stochastic Variability: Influences on Spiking Dynamics and Network Activity

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198849 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-884-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Stochastic fluctuations are intrinsic to and unavoidable at every stage of neural dynamics. For example, ion channels undergo random conformational changes, neurotransmitter release at synapses is discrete and probabilistic, and neural networks are embedded in spontaneous background activity. The mathematical and computational tool sets contributing to our understanding of stochastic neural dynamics have expanded rapidly in recent years. New theories have emerged detailing the dynamics and computational power of the balanced state in recurrent networks. At the cellular level, novel stochastic extensions to the classical Hodgkin-Huxley model have enlarged our understanding of neuronal dynamics and action potential initiation. Analytical methods have been developed that allow for the calculation of the firing statistics of simplified phenomenological integrate-and-fire models, taking into account adaptation currents or temporal correlations of the noise. This Research Topic is focused on identified physiological/internal noise sources and mechanisms. By "internal", we mean variability that is generated by intrinsic biophysical processes. This includes noise at a range of scales, from ion channels to synapses to neurons to networks. The contributions in this Research Topic introduce innovative mathematical analysis and/or computational methods that relate to empirical measures of neural activity and illuminate the functional role of intrinsic noise in the brain.

Phase-field modeling of microstructural pattern formation in alloys and geological veins

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783731504917 Year: Volume: 58 Pages: XVIII, 201 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000052440 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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With the advent of high performance computing, the application areas of the phase-field method, traditionally used to numerically model the phase transformation in metals and alloys, have now spanned into geoscience. A systematic investigation of the two distinct scientific problems in consideration suggest a strong influence of interfacial energy on the natural and induced pattern formation in diffusion-controlled regime.

Komplexitätsadaption integrierter Gesamtfahrzeugsimulationen

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Book Series: Karlsruher Schriftenreihe Fahrzeugsystemtechnik / Institut für Fahrzeugsystemtechnik ISSN: 18696058 ISBN: 9783731504146 Year: Volume: 40 Pages: XIV, 215 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000048183 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Following the research principle of economy the simplest and most suitable simulation model should be preferred over more complex ones. This allows a high goodness of fit to existing measuring data with a high generalizability during the simulation of virtual prototypes. In addition, testing effort and simulation time can be reduced. For this reason quantification attributes are researched in this book, granting an optimal simulation model complexity depending on different simulation purposes.

Work-hardening of dual-phase steel

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe Kontinuumsmechanik im Maschinenbau / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Technische Mechanik - Bereich Kontinuumsmechanik ISSN: 2192693X ISBN: 9783731505136 Year: Volume: 7 Pages: XIII, 175 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000054047 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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Dual-phase steels exhibit good mechanical properties due to a microstructure of strong martensitic inclusions embedded in a ductile ferritic matrix. This work presents a two-scale model for the underlying work-hardening effects; such as the distinctly different hardening rates observed for high-strength dual-phase steels. The model is based on geometrically necessary dislocations and comprises the average microstructural morphology as well as a direct interaction between the constituents.

Entwicklung einer Auswertemethode für bruchmechanische Versuche an kleinen Proben auf der Basis eines Kohäsivzonenmodells

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783731504412 Year: Volume: 51 Pages: XXVI, 255 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000049846 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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In this work, the fracture toughness is predicted by means of a method based on tests using sub-size specimens. For this purpose, the fracture process including crack growth is described using FEM and cohesive zone model. The tests on sub-size specimens are used for parameter identification. With this set of parameters a standard-size specimen can be simulated. The predicted fracture toughness based on this standard-size specimen meets the size-requirements of the applicable standard.

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