Search results: Found 9

Listing 1 - 9 of 9
Sort by
Medical Innovation: Science, technology and practice

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Routledge International Studies in Health Economics ISBN: 9781138860346 Year: Pages: 186 pages | 26 B/W I Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Grant: Wellcome Trust - 097665
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-09-10 11:01:16
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This book brings together a collection of empirical case studies featuring a wide spectrum of medical innovation. While there is no unique pathway to successful medical innovation, recurring and distinctive features can be observed across different areas of clinical practice. This book examines why medical practice develops so unevenly across and within areas of disease, and how this relates to the underlying conditions of innovation across areas of practice. The contributions contained in this volume adopt a dynamic perspective on medical innovation based on the notion that scientific understanding, technology and clinical practice co-evolve along the co-ordinated search for solutions to medical problems. The chapters follow an historical approach to emphasise that the advancement of medical know-how is a contested, nuanced process, and that it involves a variety of knowledge bases whose evolutionary paths are rooted in the contexts in which they emerge.

This book will be of interest to researchers and practitioners concerned with medical innovation, management studies and the economics of innovation.

Chapter 5 of this book is freely available as a downloadable Open Access PDF at www.tandfebooks.com/openaccess. It has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license.

Vitenskapelig (u)redelighet

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9788202522063 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.17585/noasp.8.20 Language: Uncoded
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-09-30 11:01:45
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Since the 1980’s, there has been a marked increase in disclosures of fraud in research. Cases of scientific fraud and misconduct do not only damage society’s confidence in research, they also contribute to reduce the trustworthiness in research in itself. Research ethics, however, involve much more than investigations of misconduct. How can we encourage good scientific practice? What does honest research entail? Which gray areas exist, and when is the limit to misconduct crossed? How should allegations of misconduct be handled? What are the consequences of fraud, and what sanctions should follow? In this anthology, Norwegian researches contribute to the discussion of various perspectives on scientific integrity and misconduct. The purpose of this book is not to give unequivocal or definitive answers to what scientific misconduct is, but to convey a diversity of positions and perspectives. Some of these are overlapping, others contradictory - which also reflects the field internationally. This anthology is an important resource for students and researchers, particularly in education and training. In addition, it will also provide insights for others involved in the prevention of misconduct and the promotion of good scientific practice.

Technological Accretion in Diagnostics (Book chapter)

Book title: Medical Innovation: Science, technology and practice

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Routledge International Studies in Health Economics ISBN: 9781138860346 Year: Pages: 186 pages | 26 B/W I Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Grant: Wellcome Trust - 097665
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:01:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This book brings together a collection of empirical case studies featuring a wide spectrum of medical innovation. While there is no unique pathway to successful medical innovation, recurring and distinctive features can be observed across different areas of clinical practice. This book examines why medical practice develops so unevenly across and within areas of disease, and how this relates to the underlying conditions of innovation across areas of practice. The contributions contained in this volume adopt a dynamic perspective on medical innovation based on the notion that scientific understanding, technology and clinical practice co-evolve along the co-ordinated search for solutions to medical problems. The chapters follow an historical approach to emphasise that the advancement of medical know-how is a contested, nuanced process, and that it involves a variety of knowledge bases whose evolutionary paths are rooted in the contexts in which they emerge.

This book will be of interest to researchers and practitioners concerned with medical innovation, management studies and the economics of innovation.

Chapter 5 of this book is freely available as a downloadable Open Access PDF at www.tandfebooks.com/openaccess. It has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license.

Mental Practice - Clinical and Experimental Research in Imagery and Action Observation

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198399 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-839-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

There is now strong evidence demonstrating that the brain simulates action and other functions. Such action simulation can be evoked through conscious mental rehearsal of movement or imagery, but also through passive action observation watching movements in others. Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that mental rehearsal of movement, or mental practice, can produce improvements normally attributed to practising actual movements. It is currently assumed that such improvements are due to neural activation associated with action simulation. However the neuroscience of mental practice efficacy is still poorly understood. The aim of this research topic is to clarify the underlying mechanisms of mental practice, bringing evidence from cognitive neuroscience, experimental neuropsychology, sport and movement science, and clinical neurology. It also attempts to address confusion regarding the concepts of imagery and observation, which has hampered the progression of mental practice research both scientifically and applied. As well as reviews, theoretical, and position articles, this research topic includes original neuroimaging, experimental, and patient research addressing, among others, the following issues. Neuroimaging studies provide strong evidence for action simulation, but the link to behavioural change and functional outcome is weak. What is the evidence that mental practice efficacy is driven by neuroplasticity processes evoked by action simulation? This research topic includes contributions on neural correlates and behaviour with regards to imagery and action observation. Much of the mental practice efficacy evidence comes from longstanding research within sport science. However, what does mental practice entail in these contexts, and to what extent is it compatible with the cognitive neuroscience perspective of action simulation? This research topic will include contributions that consider both evidence and concepts with regards to imagery and action observation, in an attempt to build an interdisciplinary consensus on the nature and application of mental practice. Mental practice is perceived as a promising motor rehabilitation technique, but critically there is lack of clarity or consensus on what mental practice treatment should entail. It is also not clear what are the most appropriate outcomes to measure imagery ability and cognitive or behavioural change following mental practice. A further important issue that needs consideration as part of this research topic is dosage, as it is currently unclear how much mental practice is appropriate and whether this depends on patient variables such as age, cognitive functioning, motor function, or pathophysiology.

Research in the Archival Multiverse

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Social Informatics ISBN: 9781876924676 9781925377699 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_628143 Language: English
Publisher: Monash University Publishing Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 100290
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-27 11:01:31
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Over the past 15 years, the field of archival studies around the world has experienced unprecedented growth within the academy and within the profession, and archival studies graduate education programs today have among the highest enrolments in any information field. During the same period, there has also been unparalleled expansion and innovation in the diversity of methods and theories being applied in archival scholarship. Global in scope, Research in the Archival Multiverse compiles critical and reflective essays across a wide range of emerging research areas and interests in archival studies; it aims to provide current and future archival academics with a text addressing possible methods and theoretical frameworks that have been and might be used in archival scholarship and research.

Manual Asymmetries, Handedness and Motor Performance

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198634 Year: Pages: 147 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-863-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The performance of most tasks with one hand, typically the right, is a uniquely human characteristic. Not only do people prefer to use one hand rather than the other, but also they usually perform tasks faster and more accurately with this hand. The study of manual asymmetries and what such performance differences between the two hands reveal about brain organization and motor function has been a topic of considerable research over the last several decades. The aim of this Research Topic is to review and further explore the origins of manual asymmetries and their relationship to handedness, unimanual and bimanual motor performance, and brain function. The articles included here involve original research conducted in humans or non-human models species, as well as theoretical perspectives, review articles, and meta-analyses.

What can neuroscience learn from contemplative practices?

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199716 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-971-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

A recent wave of brain research has advanced our understanding of the neural mechanisms of conscious states, contents and functions. A host of questions remain to be explored, as shown by lively debates between models of higher vs. lower-order aspects of consciousness, as well as global vs. local models. (Baars 2007; Block, 2009; Dennett and Cohen, 2011; Lau and Rosenthal, 2011). Over some twenty-five centuries the contemplative traditions have also developed explicit descriptions and taxonomies of the mind, to interpret experiences that are often reported in contemplative practices (Radhakrishnan & Moore, 1967; Rinbochay & Naper, 1981). These traditional descriptions sometimes converge on current scientific debates, such as the question of conceptual vs. non-conceptual consciousness; reflexivity or “self-knowing” associated with consciousness; the sense of self and consciousness; and aspects of consciousness that are said to continue during sleep. These real or claimed aspects of consciousness have not been fully integrated into scientific models so far. This Research Topic in Consciousness Research aims to provide a forum for theoretical proposals, new empirical findings, integrative literature reviews, and methodological improvements inspired by meditation-based models. We include a broad array of topics, including but not limited to: replicable findings from a variety of systematic mental practices; changes in brain functioning and organization that can be attributed to such practices; their effects on adaptation and neural plasticity; measurable effects on perception, cognition, affect and self-referential processes. We include contributions that address the question of causal attribution. Many published studies are correlational in nature, because of the inherent difficulty of conducting longitudinal experiments based on a major lifestyle decision, such as the decision to commit to a mental practice over a period of years. We also feature clinical and case studies, integrative syntheses and significant opinion articles.

Safer Healthcare: Strategies for the Real World

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783319255576 9783319255590 Year: Pages: 157 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-25559-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Pharmacy and materia medica --- Medicine (General) --- Biotechnology --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Business and Management --- Manufactures
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-27 16:39:43
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The authors of this book set out a system of safety strategies and interventions for managing patient safety on a day-to-day basis and improving safety over the long term. These strategies are applicable at all levels of the healthcare system from the frontline to the regulation and governance of the system.There have been many advances in patient safety, but we now need a new and broader vision that encompasses care throughout the patient’s journey. The authors argue that we need to see safety through the patient’s eyes, to consider how safety is managed in different contexts and to develop a wider strategic and practical vision in which patient safety is recast as the management of risk over time. Most safety improvement strategies aim to improve reliability and move closer toward optimal care. However, healthcare will always be under pressure and we also require ways of managing safety when conditions are difficult. We need to make more use of strategies concerned with detecting, controlling, managing and responding to risk. Strategies for managing safety in highly standardised and controlled environments are necessarily different from those in which clinicians constantly have to adapt and respond to changing circumstances.This work is supported by the Health Foundation. The Health Foundation is an independent charity committed to bringing about better health and health care for people in the UK.The charity’s aim is a healthier population in the UK, supported by high quality health care that can be equitably accessed. The Foundation carries out policy analysis and makes grants to front-line teams to try ideas in practice and supports research into what works to make people’s lives healthier and improve the health care system, with a particular emphasis on how to make successful change happen.A key part of the work is to make links between the knowledge of those working to deliver health and health care with research evidence and analysis. The aspiration is to create a virtuous circle, using what works on the ground to inform effective policymaking and vice versa. Good health and health care are vital for a flourishing society. Through sharing what is known, collaboration and building people’s skills and knowledge, the Foundation aims to make a difference and contribute to a healthier population.

Inter-healthcare Professions Collaboration: Educational and Practical Aspects and New Developments

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199976 Year: Pages: 28 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-997-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Settings, such as patient-centered medical homes, can serve as ideal places to promote interprofessional collaboration among healthcare providers (Fjortoft et al., 2016). Furthermore, work together by teams of interprofessional healthcare students (Van Winkle, 2015) and even practitioners (Stringer et al., 2013) can help to foster interdisciplinary collaboration. This result occurs, in part, by mitigating negative biases toward other healthcare professions (Stringer et al., 2013; Van Winkle 2016). Such changes undoubtedly require increased empathy for other professions and patients themselves (Tamayo et al., 2016). Nevertheless, there is still much work to be done to foster efforts to promote interprofessional collaboration (Wang and Zorek, 2016). This work should begin with undergraduate education and continue throughout the careers of all healthcare professionals.

Listing 1 - 9 of 9
Sort by