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the Powers of the Head of State in the Legislative and Executive Branch in Former Socialist Systems

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ISBN: 9789616842686 Year: Pages: 57 DOI: 10.4335/978-961-6842-68-6 Language: English
Publisher: Institute for Local Self-Government and Public Procurement Maribor
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2016-09-14 14:04:46
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This paper deals with the position and the powers of head of state in the legislative and the executive branch in former socialist systems. It examines the system in countries that emerged from socialist regimes, where the parliamentary system and the function of the President of the Republic as the individual head of state were introduced in the 1990s, namely in 10 (newest) Member States of the European Union. The paper elaborates on the position of the President of the Republic, the extent of the office’s powers, and the resulting cooperation between the office of the President, the executive and legislative bodies, which is also one of the fundamental criteria of the standard classification of political regimes. The powers of the President in the field of legislation are the powers based on which the relationship between the President of the Republic and the legislative authority is established. The analyzed powers that the President exercises vis-à-vis the parliament are the powers of the President in relation to the adoption of an Act, the powers that the President of the Republic has in the domain of announcing parliamentary elections and convening a parliamentary sitting, as well as the powers in the domain of dissolving the parliament and announcing early elections. In the second part the paper focuses on the relationship between the President of the Republic and the government, and, consequently, the President's powers in the formation of the government and the appointing of state officials.

Interrogating Motherhood

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Book Series: OPEL (Open Paths to Enriched Learning) ISSN: 2291-2606; 2291-2614 ISBN: 9781771991438 9781771991445 9781771991452 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.15215/aupress/9781771991438.01 Language: English
Publisher: Athabasca University Press
Subject: Gender Studies
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-06 23:34:17
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It has been four decades since the publication of Adrienne Rich’s Of Woman Born but her analysis of maternity and the archetypal Mother remains a powerful critique, as relevant today as it was at the time of writing. It was Rich who first defined the term “motherhood” as referent to a patriarchal institution that was male-defined, male controlled, and oppressive to women. To empower women, Rich proposed the use of the word “mothering”: a word intended to be female-defined. It is between these two ideas—that of a patriarchal history and a feminist future—that the introductory text, Interrogating Motherhood, begins.Ross explores the topic of mothering from the perspective of Western society and encourages students and readers to identify and critique the historical, social, and political contexts in which mothers are understood. By examining popular culture, employment, public policy, poverty, “other” mothers, and mental health, Interrogating Motherhood describes the fluid and shifting nature of the practice of mothering and the complex realities that definecontemporary women’s lives.

Religious minorities, integration and the State; État, minorités religieuses et intégration

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Religion and Law in Medieval Christian and Muslim Societies ISBN: 9782503564999 Year: Pages: 230 Language: English|French
Publisher: Brepols Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 249416
Subject: Religion --- Archaeology --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-07 11:02:38
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Judaism, Christianity and Islam have coexisted in Europe for over 1300 years. The three monotheistic faiths differ in demography, in the moment of their arrival on the continent and in the unequal relations they maintain with power: Christianity was chosen by a large number of inhabitants and became — in spite of important differences according to place and time —a religion of state. The organization of the continent into states and the divisions within Christianity often placed minorities in an unstable and at times painful situation. This partially explains the fight against "heresies", the wars of religions, the expulsion of Jews from several European kingdoms (as well as the expulsion of Muslims from Sicily and the Iberian peninsula), the "Jewish question" in the 19th century up until the Holocaust. Since the 20th century, the debates concerning Islam and concerning public expression of religion are shaped in part by this past. The 13 studies gathered in this volume explore the ways in which states have treated their religious minorities. We study various policies — repression, supervision, integration, tolerance, secularization, indifference — as well as the many ways in which minorities have accommodated the majority’s demands. The relation is by no means one-sided: on the contrary, state policies have created resistance, negotiation (on the legal, political, and cultural fronts) or compromise. Through these precise and original examples, we can see how the protagonists (states, religious institutions, the elite, the faithful) interact, try to convince or influence each other in order to transform practices, invent and implement common norms and grounds, all the while knowing the confessional dimension of "religious" majority and minority does not fully embrace the identity of each citizen in full.

Do Minho ao Mandovi: Um estudo sobre o pensamento colonial de Norton de Matos

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Book Series: História Contemporânea ISBN: 9789892611723 Year: Pages: 464 DOI: https://doi.org/10.14195/978-989-26-1173-0 Language: Portuguese
Publisher: Coimbra University Press
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-23 16:21:06
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The long-lived General José Norton de Matos (1867-1955) had his greatest success in the colonial issue, besides the ‘Miracle of Tancos’ and him running for President, in 1949. Indeed, his commission in India, where he was in charge of Land Surveying, his participation in the mission responsible for establishing the borders of Macao, and the offices of Governor-General and High Commissioner, in Angola, marked many years of activity overseas, after which he wrote doctrinal books and collaborated in newspapers and magazines. The aim of this study is to follow the colonial thinking of Norton de Matos, in order to integrate it into his time. Having dealt with the overseas issue during three political regimes, we shall assess his colonial thinking based on the main thrust of the Constitutional Monarchy, First Republic, and the dictatorial regime of Estado Novo. Therefore, it is important to establish the contact points between the three regimes and explain the ideas that permeated his views.

The Struggling State

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ISBN: 9781439912720 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_605457 Language: English
Publisher: Temple University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-31 11:01:22
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Following independence from Ethiopia, Eritrea’s leaders were praised for their success at building a coherent nation, but over the last two decades the government has increasingly turned to coercion particularly by forcing citizens into endless military service. The Struggling State: Teachers, Mass Militarization and the Reeducation of Eritrea is an ethnographic exploration of how citizens’ redefined their relationship with the nation in response to the state’s increased authoritarianism and use of force. Extremes of coercion and control led Eritreans’ to imagine the once-heroic ruling party as turning against them, which, in turn unraveled the legitimacy of state-produced imaginaries of the nation. The book focuses on teachers, who were situated to do the work of hyphenating, or gluing, nation to state but instead had to navigate between their devotion to educating the nation and their discontent with their role in the government program of mass militarization. As teachers confronted their own conflicted imaginaries of the state and questioned what it meant to be Eritrean, they reeducated the nation, but not necessarily in the way the government wanted them to. This title was made Open Access by libraries from around the world through Knowledge Unlatched.

Staatlichkeit in der Schweiz Regieren und verwalten vor der neoliberalen Wende

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783034013635 Year: Pages: 424 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_625135 Language: German
Publisher: Chronos Verlag Grant: Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) - OAPEN-CH - 170335
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-08 11:01:16
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Governance and Public Administration in Switzerland Transformations before the Neoliberal Turn &#xD;&#xD;How did the state, its administration and its tasks change within the second half of the 20th century? To answer this question the articles in this book ana-lyze administrative practices as a crucial manifestation of statehood from the 1960s to the 1990s. Although the multilevel political system served as a stabi-lizing factor, a social and cultural readiness to reform also took shape, which has had a lasting impact on the management process. A neoliberal turn did not result immediately but a discussion in that direction was opened up.&#8232;The book deals with the structure-building effect of subsidies, the commercializa-tion and privatization of state tasks, as well as with effects of scientific exper-tise on administration and politics. Transformations in education, youth, eco-nomic, migration and health policy are highlighted. Three different disciplinari-an viewpoints - history, history of education and political science are synthe-sized in the conclusion, which also outlines a relevant research program for contemporary history.

Das Sozialpolitische Prinzip

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Book Series: Gesellschaft der Unterschiede ISBN: 9783837634594 9783839434598 Year: DOI: 10.14361/9783839434598 Language: German
Publisher: transcript Verlag Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103366
Subject: Social and Public Welfare
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-30 11:01:57
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Der deutsche Sozialstaat ist in den letzten Jahren in Kritik geraten - und sieht sich trotz seiner Bewährung in den jüngsten Finanzkrisen zum verlängerten Arm des neoliberalen Kapitalismus herabgestuft. Lothar Böhnisch und Wolfgang Schröer zeigen: Wenn es um die Diskussion der Zukunft des Sozialen geht, führt eine nur auf den Sozialstaat fixierte Kritik der Sozialpolitik in die Sackgasse. Vielmehr ist es das #on("i")#Sozialpolitische Prinzip#off("i")#, von dem die eigentliche Wirkung und Kraft des Sozialen auch in der Gesellschaft der Zweiten Moderne ausgeht. Dieses Prinzip freizulegen, angesichts der gegenwärtigen Entwicklung zu erweitern und damit den einseitigen Sozialstaatsdiskurs wieder in ein dialektisches Fahrwasser zu bringen, ist das Anliegen dieses Buches.

Das Staatsarchiv Hamburg im Nationalsozialismus

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Book Series: Veröffentlichungen aus dem Staatsarchiv der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg ISBN: 9783943423297 Year: DOI: 10.15460/HUP.STAHH.24.158 Language: German
Publisher: Hamburg University Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:17

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Archives are places of history. They preserve testimonies of the past and make them accessible to the public, and also keep documents that bear witness to their own past.The influence of politics and ideology on archival activity was strongly developed during the period of National Socialism in Germany. Thus, the State Archives of Hamburg took a special position in the issue of the so-called "proofs of the Aryan" ("Ariernachweise") on account of its sources.The present work examines the past as well as the role of the state archives as well as the scientific archivists - Heinrich Reincke, Hans Kellinghusen, Erich von Lehe, and Kurt Detlev Möller - during the period of National Socialism by examination of the records, and considers the results on basis of current research.

The Impact of Losing Your Job

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ISBN: 9789089648051 Year: DOI: 10.5117/9789089648051 Language: Undetermined
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:17
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Losing a job has always been understood as one of the most important causes of downward social mobility in modern societies. And it's only gotten worse in recent years, as the weakening position of workers has made re-entering the labour market even tougher. The Impact of Losing Your Job builds on findings from life course sociology to show clearly just what effects job loss has on income, family life, and future prospects. Key to Ehlert's analysis is a comparative look at the United States and Germany that enables him to show how different approaches to welfare state policies can ameliorate the effects of job loss-but can at the same time make labour insecurity more common.

Apatites and their Synthetic Analogues - Synthesis, Structure, Properties and Applications

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ISBN: 9789535122654 9789535122661 Year: Pages: 514 DOI: 10.5772/59882 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Apatite-type minerals and their synthetic analogues are of interest of many industrial branches and scientific disciplines including material sciences, chemical industry, agriculture, geology, medicine and dentistry. This book provides a basic overview of general knowledges of this topic in order to provide the comprehensive survey from a scientific and technological perspective. The book is divided into 10 chapters, which are devoted to the structure and properties of minerals from the supergroup of apatite, experimental techniques of preparation and characterization of synthetic analogues of apatite minerals, substitution in the structure of apatite as well as utilization of these materials in wide range of common and special advanced applications in industry, material sciences and research. Additionally, the phosphate rocks, their classification, geological role, mining and beneficiation of phosphate ore, production of elemental phosphorus, phosphoric acid and fertilizers are also described. Although this book is meant for chemist, material scientist and research engineers, the individual chapters contain theoretical background, historical aspects as well as examples of synthetic and analytical methods which may be also interesting for students and non-expert readers as well.

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