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Scents that matter - from olfactory stimuli to genes, behaviors and beyond

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198139 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-813-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Scents can carry a lot of important information about the environment, conspecifics and other species. While some of these scents are positively related, as the odor of food, mating partners, or familiar conspecifics, other scents are associated with negative situations and events, e.g. the occurrence of a predator, an aggressive territorial conspecific or spoiled food. The present research topic is focused on such “scents that matter”, i.e., scents that are crucial for the survival of an organism. Since many years, the importance of scents always attracts scientists to investigate how scents affect the behavior of mammals, via which mechanisms scents are perceived and how scents modulate neural circuitries responsible for behavior. We believe that this research topic gives a nice overview on current ‘olfactory research.’ Many of the contributions are focused on scents with aversive effects, i.e. kairomones or pheromones that warn about potential threats. These studies range from research articles identifying new active odor components of predator odors, describing the induced behavioral changes and the underlying neuroanatomical and neurochemical mechanisms, to review articles summarizing the findings of the last decades on this field. Other articles are focused on the effects of scents in social behaviors or on associative learning. This research topic also represents nicely the current combination of methodological approaches in ‘olfactory research’: cell biologists, geneticists, behavioral pharmacologists, neuroanatomists, and computational modelers work effectively together to unravel the mechanisms of how scents matters in humans and animals.

Emotion and Behavior

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199655 Year: Pages: 131 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-965-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
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In this Research Topic, several groups of researchers from both social and biological psychology summarize their findings addressing the relation between emotion and behavior. The Reflective-Impulsive Model (RIM) (Strack & Deutsch, 2004; 2014 in press) serves as a general orientation and provides a link to integrate the results from seemingly divergent perspectives. The contributions focuses on different types of emotional behaviors, like facial expressions and impulsive reactions. They address the central issue of approach vs. avoidance and include clinical topics like addiction and fear. Methodologically, the contributions are predominantly experimental and are partly based on manipulations in the context of virtual reality.

Keywords

emotion --- Behavior --- impulsive --- reflective --- approach --- avoidance

Cytokines as Players of Neuronal Plasticity and Sensitivity to Environment in Healthy and Pathological Brain

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197682 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-768-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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It is now accepted that immune molecules are not only present within the brain during pathology but they exert physiological functions in the "healthy" brain as well. Increasing evidence points to a neuro-modulatory role of cytokines and chemokines (CHEMOtactic cytoKINES) in basal transmission and plasticity processes where signaling between peri-synaptic astrocytes, microglia and neurons plays an important role. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms as to how cytokines, and in particular chemokines, participate in the molecular and cellular processes thought to subserve memory formation, plasticity processes and responsiveness to environmental stimuli remain to be clarified. Interestingly, in in vitro preparations, molecules like TNF-a, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, CX3CL1, CXCL12, CCL2 and CCL3 are implicated in synaptic formation and scaling, in modulation of glutamatergic transmission, in plasticity and neurogenesis, in particular in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is an extremely plastic structure, one of the main neurogenic niches in the adult brain, that exhibits a marked sensibility to environmental stimuli. Indeed exposure of mice to environmental enrichment (EE) modifies learning and memory abilities increasing neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity whether exposure to severe stressful experiences diminishes neurotrophic support, impairs neurogenesis, plasticity and cognition. In the hippocampus cytokines play a key role in mediating both positive as well as negative effects of the environment affecting neuronal plasticity also in stress related pathologies, such as depression. It has been reported that mice lacking type 1 receptor for IL-1 display impaired hippocampal memory and LTP that are restored by EE; moreover negative effects on neuronal plasticity (and thus behavior) induced by stress exposure can be prevented by blocking IL-1 activity. In addition, mice lacking IL-6 have improved cognitive functions whereas the absence of microglia-driven CX3CR1 signaling increases hippocampal plasticity and spatial memory occluding the potentiating effects of EE. However, the factors mediating the effect of environmental stimuli on behavior and plasticity has been only partially identified. Interestingly, it has been suggested that chemokines can play a key role in the flexibility of hippocampal structure and may modulate neuronal signaling during behavior. The question is how cytokines may translate environmental stimuli in plasticity and behavioral changes. This research topic is proposed to explore the role of cytokines, and more in particular chemokines, in the modulation of neuronal activity as a fundamental step for the correct brain wiring, function and susceptibility to environment. We encourage the submission of original research reports, review articles, commentaries, perspectives or short communications, in the following (but not limited to) topics:- Role of cytokines and chemokines in neuronal plasticity- Immune molecules and responsiveness to environment- Role of chemokine in the flexibility of hippocampal structure

The Psychology of Social Networking Vol. 1. Personal Experience in Online Communities

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783110473780 9783110474015 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.1515/9783110473780 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Sociology --- Computer Science --- Media and communication --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-19 15:17:36
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Using a novel approach to consider the available literature and research, this book focuses on the psychology of social media based on the assumption that the experience of being in a social media has an impact on both our identity and social relationships. In order to ‘be online’, an individual has to create an online presence – they have to share information about themselves online. This online self is presented in different ways, with diverse goals and aims in order to engage in different social media activities and to achieve desired outcomes. Whilst this may not be a real physical presence, that physicality is becoming increasingly replicated through photos, video, and ever-evolving ways of defining and describing the self online. Moreover, individuals are using both PC-based and mobile-based social media as well as increasingly making use of photo and video editing tools to carefully craft and manipulate their online self. This book therefore explores current debates in Cyberpsychology, drawing on the most up-to-date theories and research to explore four main aspects of the social media experience (communication, identity, presence and relationships). In doing so, it considers the interplay of different areas of psychological research with current technological and security insight into how individuals create, manipulate and maintain their online identity and relationships. The social media are therefore at the core of every chapter, with the common thread throughout being the very unique approach to considering diverse and varied online behaviours that may not have been thus far considered from this perspective. It covers a broad range of both positive and negative behaviours that have now become integrated into the daily lives of many westernised country’s Internet users, giving it an appeal to both scholarly and industry readers alike.

The Psychology of Social Networking Vol. 2. Identity and Relationships in Online Communities

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783110473858 9783110474022 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.1515/9783110473858 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Sociology --- Psychology --- Media and communication --- Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-19 15:22:18
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Using a novel approach to consider the available literature and research, this book focuses on the psychology of social media based on the assumption that the experience of being in a social media has an impact on both our identity and social relationships. In order to ‘be online’, an individual has to create an online presence – they have to share information about themselves online. This online self is presented in different ways, with diverse goals and aims in order to engage in different social media activities and to achieve desired outcomes. Whilst this may not be a real physical presence, that physicality is becoming increasingly replicated through photos, video, and ever-evolving ways of defining and describing the self online. Moreover, individuals are using both PC-based and mobile-based social media as well as increasingly making use of photo and video editing tools to carefully craft and manipulate their online self. This book therefore explores current debates in Cyberpsychology, drawing on the most up-to-date theories and research to explore four main aspects of the social media experience (communication, identity, presence and relationships). In doing so, it considers the interplay of different areas of psychological research with current technological and security insight into how individuals create, manipulate and maintain their online identity and relationships. The social media are therefore at the core of every chapter, with the common thread throughout being the very unique approach to considering diverse and varied online behaviours that may not have been thus far considered from this perspective. It covers a broad range of both positive and negative behaviours that have now become integrated into the daily lives of many westernised country’s Internet users, giving it an appeal to both scholarly and industry readers alike.

Reproductive Neuroendocrinology and Social Behavior

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198627 Year: Pages: 313 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-862-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General) --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Anti-social behaviors and social deficits induced mental disorders are critical problems in our society today. Social behaviors and interactions are shaped by experience, hereditary components (genes, hormones and neuropeptides) and environmental factors (photoperiods and metabolic signals). In addition to the classical gonadotropin-releasing hormone, RFamide peptides, kisspeptin and gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone are emerging as important regulators of the reproductive axis. These neuropeptides are evolutionarily conserved and are regulated by environmental factors. In this Research Topic, we advocate more recent advances in reproductive neuropeptides and sex steroids in the domains of social behavior including sexual and parental behavior, aggression, stress and anxiety. Using multiple species model, we also review how genes and the neuroendocrine system interact at the cell and organismic levels to contribute to social behavior in particular the epigenetic genomic changes caused by early life environment. We provide comprehensive insights of distinct neural networks and how cellular and molecular events in the brain regulate social behavior from a comparative perspective.

Adolescent Pregnancy: Past, Present and Future Trends and Issues

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ISBN: 9783038422945 9783038422952 Year: Pages: X, 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-295-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-27 09:48:30
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This collection provides a forum for leading scholars to examine theoretical insights and empirical findings associated with the recent decline in adolescent pregnancy and childbearing internationally, with special attention given to the United States. This recent shift in the incidence of adolescent fertility is notable in its consistency and magnitude; at the same time, however, continuing historic disparities require focused attention on the contemporary meaning of early childbearing in the U.S. as well as across the globe.The widely interdisciplinary contributions focus on demographic trends in adolescent fertility; successful intervention approaches and major “lessons learned” regarding primary pregnancy prevention; identification of key theoretical issues associated with these trends, with particular focus on the existence and meaning of disparities and their implications for youth development and wellbeing.

Trends in Neuroendocrinology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450725 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-072-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General) --- Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Neuroendocrinology is the discipline that investigates the interplay between the nervous and endocrine systems i.e. the control of endocrine glands by the central and peripheral nervous systems, the action of hormones on nerve cells and the production of hormones by the nervous system. The present Research Topic is a compilation of contributions stemming from the 8th International Congress of Neuroendocrinology (ICN2014) held in Sydney, Australia, that illustrates various facets of current neuroendocrine research.

Human Computer Confluence. Transforming Human Experience Through Symbiotic Technologies

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783110471137 9783110471694 Year: Pages: 330 DOI: 10.1515/9783110471137 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Psychology --- Media and communication --- Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-19 14:17:23
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Human-computer confluence refers to an invisible, implicit, embodied or even implanted interaction between humans and system components. New classes of user interfaces are emerging that make use of several sensors and are able to adapt their physical properties to the current situational context of users.A key aspect of human-computer confluence is its potential for transforming human experience in the sense of bending, breaking and blending the barriers between the real, the virtual and the augmented, to allow users to experience their body and their world in new ways. Research on Presence, Embodiment and Brain-Computer Interface is already exploring these boundaries and asking questions such as: Can we seamlessly move between the virtual and the real? Can we assimilate fundamentally new senses through confluence? The aim of this book is to explore the boundaries and intersections of the multidisciplinary field of HCC and discuss its potential applications in different domains, including healthcare, education, training and even arts.

What Determines Social Behavior? Investigating the Role of Emotions, Self-Centered Motives, and Social Norms

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199648 Year: Pages: 403 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-964-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Human behavior and decision making is subject to social and motivational influences such as emotions, norms and self/other regarding preferences. The identification of the neural and psychological mechanisms underlying these factors is a central issue in psychology, behavioral economics and social neuroscience, with important clinical, social, and even political implications. However, despite a continuously growing interest from the scientific community, the processes underlying these factors, as well as their ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, have so far remained elusive. In this Research Topic we collect articles that provide challenging insights and stimulate a fruitful controversy on the question of “what determines social behavior”. Indeed, over the last decades, research has shown that introducing a social context to otherwise abstract tasks has diverse effects on social behavior. On the one hand, it may induce individuals to act irrationally, for instance to refuse money, but on the other hand it improves individuals’ reasoning, in that formerly difficult abstract problems can be easily solved. These lines of research led to distinct (although not necessarily mutually exclusive) models for socially-driven behavioral changes. For instance, a popular theoretical framework interprets human behavior as a result of a conflict between cognition and emotion, with the cognitive system promoting self-interested choices, and the emotional system (triggered by the social context) operating against them. Other theories favor social norms and deontic heuristics in biasing human reasoning and encouraging choices that are sometimes in conflict with one’s interest. Few studies attempted to disentangle between these (as well as other) models. As a consequence, although insightful results arise from specific domains/tasks, a comprehensive theoretical framework is still missing. Furthermore, studies employing neuroimaging techniques have begun to shed some light on the neural substrates involved in social behavior, implicating consistently (although not exclusively) portions of the limbic system, the insular and the prefrontal cortex. In this context, a challenge for present research lies not only in further mapping the brain structures implicated in social behavior, or in describing in detail the functional interaction between these structures, but in showing how the implicated networks relate to different theoretical models. This is Research Topic hosted by members of the Swiss National Center of Competence in Research “Affective Sciences – Emotions in Individual Behaviour and Social Processes”. We collected contributions from the international community which extended the current knowledge about the psychological and neural structures underlying social behavior and decision making. In particular, we encouraged submissions from investigators arising from different domains (psychology, behavioral economics, affective sciences, etc.) implementing different techniques (behavior, electrophysiology, neuroimaging, brain stimulations) on different populations (neurotypical adults, children, brain damaged or psychiatric patients, etc.). Animal studies are also included, as the data reported are of high comparative value. Finally, we also welcomed submissions of meta-analytical articles, mini-reviews and perspective papers which offer provocative and insightful interpretations of the recent literature in the field.

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CC by (10)

CC by-nc-nd (4)


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english (14)


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2016 (14)