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Firm Innovation and Productivity in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Engine of Economic Development

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ISBN: 9781349581504 9781349581511 Year: Pages: 346 DOI: 10.1057/978-1-349-58151-1 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-11 17:53:00
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This volume uses the study of firm dynamics to investigate the factors preventing faster productivity growth in Latin America and the Caribbean, pushing past the limits of traditional macroeconomic analyses. Each chapter is dedicated to an examination of a different factor affecting firm productivity - innovation, ICT usage, on-the-job-training, firm age, access to credit, and international linkages - highlighting the differences in firm characteristics, behaviors, and strategies. By showcasing this remarkable heterogeneity, this collection challenges regional policymakers to look beyond one-size-fits-all solutions and create balanced policy mixes tailored to distinct firm needs.

Keywords

development --- economics

Saving for Development: How Latin America and the Caribbean Can Save More and Better

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ISBN: 9781349949281 9781349949298 Year: Pages: 329 DOI: 10.1057/978-1-349-94929-8 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-11 17:56:51
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Why should people - and economies - save? This book on the savings problem in Latin America and the Caribbean suggests that, while saving to survive the bad times is important, saving to thrive in the good times is what really counts. People must save to invest in health and education, live productive and fulfilling lives, and make the most of their retirement years. Firms must save to grow their enterprises, employ more workers in better jobs, and produce quality goods. Governments must save to build the infrastructure required by a productive economy, provide quality services to their citizens, and assure their senior citizens a dignified, worry-free retirement. In short, countries must save not for the proverbial rainy day, but for a sunny day - a time when everyone can bask in the benefits of growth, prosperity, and well-being.

Eating, Drinking: Surviving

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Global Understanding ISSN: 2509-7784 ISBN: 9783319424675 9783319424682 Year: Pages: 105 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-42468-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 18:01:01
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This publication addresses the global challenges of food and water security in a rapidly changing and complex world. The essays highlight the links between bio-physical and socio-cultural processes, making connections between local and global scales, and focusing on the everyday practices of eating and drinking, essential for human survival. Written by international experts, each contribution is research-based but accessible to the general public.

Transactions on Modularity and Composition I

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783319469683 9783319469690 Year: DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-46969-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 258405
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:01:18

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The LNCS Transactions on Modularity and Composition are devoted to all aspects of software modularity and composition methods, tools, and techniques, covering requirement analysis, design, implementation, maintenance, and evolution. The focus of the journal also includes modelling techniques, new paradigms and languages, development tools, measurement, novel verification and testing approaches, theoretical foundations, and understanding interactions between modularity and composition.&#xD;&#xD;This, the first issue of the Transactions on Modularity and Composition, consists of two sections. The first one, guest edited by Patrick Eugster, Mario Südholt, and Lukasz Ziarek, is entitled “Aspects, Events, and Modularity” and includes papers focusing on context-oriented software development, specifications for even-based systems, and development of modular software. The second section, guest edited by Gary T. Leavens, contains journal versions of selected papers from Modularity 2015, which was held in March 2015, in Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Topics covered by the papers in this section include software unbundling, layer activation in context-oriented programming, modular reasoning in event-based languages, and dynamic dispatch for method contracts using abstract predicates.

Economics of Land Degradation and Improvement – A Global Assessment for Sustainable Development

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783319191676 9783319191683 Year: Pages: 686 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-19168-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Economics --- Environmental Sciences --- Manufactures --- Business and Management --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-08 16:53:56
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This volume deals with land degradation, which is occurring in almost all terrestrial biomes and agro-ecologies, in both low and high income countries and is stretching to about 30% of the total global land area. About three billion people reside in these degraded lands. However, the impact of land degradation is especially severe on livelihoods of the poor who heavily depend on natural resources. The annual global cost of land degradation due to land use and cover change (LUCC) and lower cropland and rangeland productivity is estimated to be about 300 billion USD. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) accounts for the largest share (22%) of the total global cost of land degradation. Only about 38% of the cost of land degradation due to LUCC - which accounts for 78% of the US$300 billion loss – is borne by land users and the remaining share (62%) is borne by consumers of ecosystem services off the farm. The results in this volume indicate that reversing land degradation trends makes both economic sense, and has multiple social and environmental benefits. On average, one US dollar investment into restoration of degraded land returns five US dollars. The findings of the country case studies call for increased investments into the rehabilitation and restoration of degraded lands, including through such institutional and policy measures as strengthening community participation for sustainable land management, enhancing government effectiveness and rule of law, improving access to markets and rural services, and securing land tenure. The assessment in this volume has been conducted at a time when there is an elevated interest in private land investments and when global efforts to achieve sustainable development objectives have intensified. In this regard, the results of this volume can contribute significantly to the ongoing policy debate and efforts to design strategies for achieving sustainable development goals and related efforts to address land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

The Great Mindshift: How a New Economic Paradigm and Sustainability Transformations go Hand in Hand

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Book Series: The Anthropocene: Politik—Economics—Society—Science ISSN: 2367-4024 ISBN: 9783319437651 9783319437668 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-43766-8 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Economics --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-24 12:15:45
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This book describes the path ahead. It combines system transformation research with political economy and change leadership insights when discussing the need for a great mindshift in how human wellbeing, economic prosperity and healthy ecosystems are understood if the Great Transformations ahead are to lead to more sustainability. It shows that history is made by purposefully acting humans and introduces transformative literacy as a key skill in leading change.

About Russia, Its Revolutions, Its Development and Its Present

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Book Series: Prager Schriften zur Zeitgeschichte und zum Zeitgeschehen ISBN: 9783631695548 9783631695555 9783631671368 Year: Pages: 191 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Political Science --- Sociology --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:54
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The author analyzes modern Russian history from a new perspective. Due to the ideological heritage of the XIXth and XXth centuries, the social settings of the sociopolitical history of the USSR (1917–1945) have not been fully identified. Detailed examination of ideological and political concepts shows that the revolution of 1917 became not a middle class, proletarian movement, but rather a plebeian one. The misjudgment by the new power enabled growth but caused tremendous losses of human lives and material damages. Socialization of economy and strict centralization led to a new social structure and established terror as an instrument for social reorganization. WWII revealed the necessity of a correction of these developments, but the events of the Cold War circumvented any further considerations.

Keywords

Development --- Present --- Reiman --- Revolutions --- Russia

Development of executive function during childhood

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198009 Year: Pages: 457 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-800-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Executive function refers to the goal-oriented regulation of one’s own thoughts, actions, and emotions. Its importance is attested by its contribution to the development of other cognitive skills (e.g., theory of mind), social abilities (e.g., peer interactions), and academic achievement (e.g., mathematics), and by the consequences of deficits in executive function (which are observed in wide range of developmental disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism). Over the last decade, there have been growing interest in the development of executive function, and an expanding body of research has shown that executive function develops rapidly during the preschool years, with adult-level performance being achieved during adolescence or later. This recent work, together with experimental research showing the effects of interventions targeting executive function, has yielded important insights into the neurocognitive processes underlying executive function. Given the complexity of the construct of executive function, however, and the multiplicity of underlying processes, there are often inconsistencies in the way that executive function is defined and studied. This inconsistency has hampered communication among researchers from various fields. This Research Topic is intended to bridge this gap and provide an opportunity for researchers from different perspectives to discuss recent advances in understanding childhood executive function. Researchers using various methods, including, behavioral experiments, neuroimaging, eye-tracking, computer simulation, observational methods, and questionnaires, are encouraged to contribute original empirical research. In addition to original empirical articles, theoretical reviews and opinions/perspective articles on promising future directions are welcome. We hope that researchers from different areas, such as developmental psychology, educational psychology, experimental psychology, neuropsychology, neuroscience, psychiatry, computational science, etc., will be represented in the Research Topic.

Innovation Networks and the New Asian Regionalism

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ISBN: 9781785364488 9781785364495 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.4337/9781785364495 Language: English
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-12 14:46:17
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The rise of Asia, as well as the future of regional cooperation and integration (RCI) the world over, will be profoundly influenced by the challenges of slowing productivity growth, increasing economic inequalities and systemic vulnerabilities. Such structural reform issues will require RCI policies that complement domestic policy reform. This unique book explains what drives the regional economic integration of nations and their contribution to national knowledge capital. It also lays out how such beneficial integration can generate broad-based, equitable wealth in Europe and Asia.

How Can Development and Plasticity Contribute to Understanding Evolution of the Human Brain?

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198894 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-889-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Humans usually attribute themselves the prerogative of being the pinnacle of evolution. They have large brains with many billion neurons and glial cells, trillions of synapses and besides all, a plastic hardware that may change either subtly or strongly in response to the external environment and internal, mental commands. With this hypercomplex apparatus, they are capable of very sophisticated inward computations and outward behaviors that include self-recognition, metacognition, different forms of language expression and reception, prediction of future events, planning and performing long streams of motor acts, subtle emotional feelings, and many other surprising, almost unbelievable properties. The main challenge for research is: how do we explain this gigantic achievement of evolution? Is it a direct consequence of having acquired a brain larger than our primate ancestors, with huge numbers of computational units? Would it be determined by a particular way these units came to relate to each other, building up logic circuits of powerful capacities? What along development has “made the difference” for the construction of such a complex brain machine? How much of this complexity is innate, how much is sculpted by influence of the external world, by social interaction with our human fellows, and by the history of our own mental trajectory along life? Many specific questions can be asked (albeit not necessarily answered so far) to this purpose: (1) which genomic characteristics make us unique among primates? (2) which of developmental events during and beyond embryogenesis define our brain – prolonged neurogenesis? permanent circuit (re)formation? dynamic synaptogenesis? regressive sculpting of the hardware? all of them? (3) is there anything special about plasticity of the human brain that allows us to build the exquisite individual variability characteristic of our brains? Neuroscience is in need of a synthesis. Perhaps associating concepts derived from developmental neurobiology with evolutionary morphology and physiology, together with those that photograph the human brain in action under influence of the external world, would turn on a light at the end of the tunnel, and we would be able to understand what humans do have that is special – if anything – to explain our success in the Earth.

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