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Estudos socioculturais em alimentação e saúde : saberes em rede, vol. 5

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9788575114568 Year: DOI: 10.7476/9788575114568 Language: Portuguese
Publisher: SciELO Books - EDUERJ
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-21 09:18:16
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Esta coletânea corresponde ao quinto volume da Série Sabor Metrópole, organizada pela Rede Ibero-Americana de Pesquisa Qualitativa em Alimentação e Sociedade, a REDE NAUS. Aqui estão presentes expressões do pensamento quando ele se volta para as relações sociais construídas em torno de discursos e práticas alimentares e corporais, tendo a saúde por horizonte último. Corresponde a espaço de reflexões sobre a comunicação quando ela se dirige à comida e ao corpo, compreendidos na cultura, na sociedade e na história. Dirige-se a estudantes, docentes, pesquisadores e profissionais de variadas formações, em especial, aqueles que atuam nos campos da Alimentação e Nutrição, Saúde e Humanidades.

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HEALTH & FITNESS

Today’s Nutrition and Tomorrow’s Public Health: Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198184 Year: Pages: 83 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-818-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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At the dawn of the third millennium, we are confronted with a disturbing phenomenon: although global life expectancy still increases, this is not the case for healthy life expectancy! The explanation of this seemingly contradiction is mainly due to the rising prevalence of the new pandemia of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Even in low and middle income countries, the improvement in healthcare status and life expectancy is paralled by the increase of NCDs, as in all countries worldwide. Since the United Nations General Assembly held in New York in 2011, many publications have emphasized the close link between NCDs and nutrition. The NCDs epidemic forces us to reconsider the public health perspectives. Many governments, non-governmental organizations and other institutions are actively involved in educational nutrition programs and campaigns; however their efforts seldom obtain the results hoped for. It is extremely difficult to induce changes in lifestyle and behavior that have built up over a long period of time. However, it becomes urgent to adapt to our changing life-environment where traditional wisdom and intuitive choices are giving way to individual thinking and search for (often uncontrolled) information. This engenders a number of unprecedented challenges and it calls for a re-appraisal of the existing paradigms to achieve an adequate management of the upstream determinants of health instead of a (pre)dominant medical and hospital-centric approach. In the era of personalized healthcare, it is time to empower policy makers, professionals and citizens for achieving an evidence-based change in the health-disease interface and decision-making process for public health interventions. The scientific and professional society Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) has recognized nutrition as a health technology by creating a Interest Group (IG) dedicated to research on methodologies and assessments of nutrition-related public health, while taking into account contextual factors (ethical, legal, social, organizational, economic, ...) in order to generate meaningful outcomes for establishing evidence-based health policies. This Research Topic aims to elaborate on some of the potential hurdles which have to be overcome for the sake of sustainable healthcare provisions anywhere in the world, such as shortcomings in methodological approaches, regulatory frameworks, gaps between evidence, its hierarchy and final recommendations for public health management.

Microorganisms for Functional Food

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198825 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-882-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Nowadays, most of Western consumers are aware that a targeted diet could be an important tool for fighting ageing and diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Microorganisms may be exploited for setting up novel foods that, beside their nutritional value, may positively impact on consumers’ health. Some microorganisms may benefit host when ingested as viable cells carried by food and beverages. This falls in the intriguing field of probiotics, recently brought forward by the numerous probiotic claims rejected by the European Food Safety Authority. This research topic includes research articles and reviews/perspectives that (i) contribute to understand the mechanism underlying the health effects of probiotic microorganisms; (ii) show integrated approaches for selecting new probiotics; (iii) report about non-dairy food items as novel carriers of probiotics; and (iv) deal with biologically active compounds from microorganisms.

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and Public Health: Progress and Current Challenges

ISBN: 9783038421559 9783038421566 Year: Pages: 316
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 15:26:51
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Over the past decade, coastal and freshwater systems in the U.S. and worldwide have experienced an apparent increase in the frequency and geographic distribution of harmful algal blooms (HABs). These blooms can adversely affect both public health and ecosystem health. Toxin-producing HABs can accumulate in drinking and recreational waters and in foods of aquatic origin such as fish and seafood. Human and animal health risks include exposure to the toxins through eating contaminated food or drinking or swimming in contaminated water. Because of these potential public health risks, several countries and U.S. states have developed monitoring programs and guidelines for drinking and recreational water quality to protect public health. This special issue will present research papers and reviews on various aspects of public health and environmental responses to harmful algal blooms. [...]

Health Care Financing and Affordability in the Emerging Global Markets

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198375 Year: Pages: 95 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-837-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Public Health --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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During the recent few decades, global economic growth has been driven largely by developing world economies. The ones with the most intensive pace of development were marked as “emerging“ markets led by so called BRICS and N-11 countries. Such changes inevitably reflected the global health arena. A number of issues previously limited to established high-income economies became popularly discussed topics on the agendas of public health policy makers across these regions. Major challenges remain population aging, rising incidence of prosperity diseases, lack of universal insurance coverage and particularly provision of just and equitable access to medical care among the poor both in urban and rural communities. A significant part of the difficulties faced by these societies are attributed to inefficient resource allocation strategies in health care and unsatisfactory funding strategies. This Research Topic was created in order to address the core challenges of medical care financing and its affordability across the emerging global markets. Contributions of both undergoing or finished original research as well as review style papers are welcomed. All submitted manuscripts should deal with issues relevant to health care economics and policy in recognized global emerging markets. Outside the aforementioned key markets (BRICS- Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa; Next 11- Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, South Korea, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Turkey and Vietnam) submissions referring to any of the dynamically developing Asian, Latin America, Eastern Europe or MENA countries are encouraged. In addition to a variety of health-economic evaluations and health policy analysis, methodological and resource use studies are within the Topic scope. Health policy considerations should be primarily focused on financing mechanisms and affordability of health care although other surrounding issues such as health insurance, reimbursement and cost-containment strategies will be considered.

Refining Prevention: Genetic and Epigenetic Contributions

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198085 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-808-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
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Currently, most prevention efforts are framed as universal interventions. However, despite the demonstrated efficacy of many prevention programs, variability in response is the rule with some participants responding very little and others accounting for the bulk of the positive impact of the program. Better understanding the processes associated with better and worse response to prevention is a critical first step in refining and adapting existing programs, or alternatively designing new prevention programs with enhanced outcomes. Because vulnerabilities to substance use, emotional problems, risky sexual behavior and other behavioral problems are influenced by a combination of environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors, mediated in part through psychological processes (Kreek et al., 2005; Rutter et al., 2006), the study of genetic and epigenetic vulnerability and susceptibility factors provides an important starting point for efforts to address this critical need. A growing body of research on differential genetic susceptibility indicates that efforts to enhance prevention impact may benefit from consideration of the contribution of individualgenetic differences to treatment response (Brody et al., 2013). In addition, the recent expansion of genetic research to include a focus on epigenetic change provides considerable promise for the development of indicated prevention and individually tailored prevention efforts. However, before this promise can be realized, a number of theoretical and practical challenges remain. Thus, through this special section, we provide a foundation for a new era of prevention research in which the principles of prevention science are combined with genomic science. In the current special section we bring together authors to deal with genetic and epigenetically driven processes relevant to depression, substance abuse, and sexual risk taking. Together they comment on, and provide data relevant to, assessment, research and statistical methods, The papers help to inform the development of a new generation of prevention programs that go beyond universal programs and sensitively target key processes while providing greater precision regarding prediction of population-level impact.

Better Together: A Joined-Up Psychological Approach to Health, Well-Being, and Rehabilitation

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199419 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-941-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Health and well-being is best understood in terms of a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors. But how ‘social’ is the biopsychosocial model when applied to mental health and rehabilitation? Psychology has traditionally viewed health as being determined by individual behavior. An integrative psychological approach is required to draw understanding from sociology, social psychology, and politics to consider how wider systemic, structural, and contextual factors impact on health behavior and outcomes. This e-book is dedicated to examining collective and community approaches to well-being and rehabilitation. In particular, the articles contained within this e-book are seeking to understand how social integration, social groups, social identity, and social capital influence health, well-being, and rehabilitation outcomes.

The Impact of Active and Passive Smoking upon Health and Neurocognitive Function

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199778 Year: Pages: 62 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-977-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for a number of chronic diseases, including a variety of cancers, lung disease and damage to the cardiovascular system. The World Health Organization recently calculated that there were 6 million smoking-attributable deaths per year and that this number is due to rise to about eight million per year by the end of 2030. Recent work has demonstrated that habitual smoking in adults is not only associated with a range of health problems, but may also contribute to a number of neurocognitive deficits, including deficits in memory and attention. One area of growing concern is the health and neurocognitive consequences of exposure to second-hand smoke or “passive smoking” (where a non-smoker inhales another person’s smoke, mainly in the form of side-stream smoke). In terms of tackling smoking-related problems, there has been a rise in the amount and range of smoking cessation and interventions techniques, including the emergence of e-cigarettes as one of the most popular forms of nicotine replacement therapies. The present book comprises a collection of manuscripts discussing (1) the impact of active and passive smoking upon health and neurocognitive function, (2) smoking cessation techniques and interventions used to tackle smoking-related problems, and (3) a critical consideration of current issues surrounding the use of e-cigarettes as nicotine-replacement therapy. This collection of papers includes empirical, theoretical, and review papers. This Research Topic demonstrates the broad nature of research currently being undertaken in this field and should pave the way for future work.

Animal (De)liberation

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ISBN: 9781909188846 9781909188839 9781909188853 9781909188860 9781909188877 9781909188846 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.5334/bay Language: English
Publisher: Ubiquity Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 104137
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Public Health --- Medicine (General) --- Law --- Animal Sciences --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-19 11:01:13
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"In this book, Jan Deckers addresses the most crucial question that people must deliberate in relation to how we should treat other animals: whether we should eat animal products. Many people object to the consumption of animal products from the conviction that it inflicts pain, suffering, and death upon animals. This book argues that a convincing ethical theory cannot be based on these important concerns: rather, it must focus on our interest in human health. Tending to this interest demands not only that we extend speciesism—the attribution of special significance to members of our own species merely because they belong to the same species as ourself—towards nonhuman animals, but also that we safeguard the integrity of nature. In this light, projects that aim to engineer the genetic material of animals to reduce their capacities to feel pain and to suffer are morally suspect. The same applies to projects that aim to develop in-vitro flesh, even if the production of such flesh should be welcomed on other grounds. The theory proposed in this book is accompanied by a political goal, the ‘vegan project’, which strives for a qualified ban on the consumption of animal products. Deckers also provides empirical evidence that some support for this goal exists already, and his analysis of the views of others—including those of slaughterhouse workers—reveals that the vegan project stands firm in spite of public opposition. Many charges have been pressed against vegan diets, including: that they alienate human beings from nature; that they increase human food security concerns; and that they are unsustainable. Deckers argues that these charges are legitimate in some cases, but that, in many situations, vegan diets are actually superior. For those who remain doubtful, the book also contains an appendix that considers whether vegan diets might actually be nutritionally adequate."

Gut Health: The New Paradigm in Animal Production?

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450299 Year: Pages: 163 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-029-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Gut health and specifically the gut microbiome-host interaction is currently a major research topic across the life sciences. In the case of animal sciences research into animal production and health, the gut has been a continuous area of interest. Production parameters such as growth and feed efficiency are entirely dependent on optimum gut health. In addition, the gut is a major immune organ and one of the first lines of defense in animal disease. Recent changes in animal production management and feed regulations, both regulatory and consumer driven, have placed added emphasis on finding ways to optimize gut health in novel and effective ways. In this volume we bring together original research and review articles covering three major categories of gut health and animal production: the gut microbiome, mucosal immunology, and feed-based interventions. Included within these categories is a broad range of scientific expertise and experimental approaches that span food animal production. Our goal in bringing together the articles on this research topic is to survey the current knowledge on gut health in animal production. The following 15 articles include knowledge and perspectives from researchers from multiple countries and research perspectives, all with the central goal of improving animal health and production.

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