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Genomics and Effectomics of the Crop Killer Xanthomonas

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199020 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-902-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Phytopathogenic bacteria of the Xanthomonas genus cause severe diseases on hundreds of host plants, including economically important crops, such as bean, cabbage, cassava, citrus, hemp, pepper, rice, sugarcane, tomato or wheat. Diseases occurring in nature comprise bacterial blight, canker, necrosis, rot, scald, spot, streak or wilt. Xanthomonas spp. are distributed worldwide and pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains are essentially found in association to plants. Some phytopathogenic strains are emergent or re-emergent and, consequently, dramatically impact agriculture, economy and food safety. During the last decades, massive efforts were undertaken to decipher Xanthomonas biology. So far, more than one hundred complete or draft genomes from diverse Xanthomonas species have been sequenced (http://www.xanthomonas.org), thus providing powerful tools to study genetic determinants triggering pathogenicity and adaptation to plant habitats. Xanthomonas spp. employ an arsenal of virulence factors to invade its host, including extracellular polysaccharides, plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, adhesins and secreted effectors. In most xanthomonads, type III secretion (T3S) system and secreted effectors (T3Es) are essential to bacterial pathogenicity through the inhibition of plant immunity or the induction of plant susceptibility (S) genes, as reported for Transcription Activation-Like (TAL) effectors. Yet, toxins can also be major virulence determinants in some xanthomonads while nonpathogenic Xanthomonas species do live in sympatry with plant without any T3S systems nor T3Es. In a context of ever increasing international commercial exchanges and modifications of the climate, monitoring and regulating pathogens spread is of crucial importance for food security. A deep knowledge of the genomic diversity of Xanthomonas spp. is required for scientists to properly identify strains, to help preventing future disease outbreaks and to achieve knowledge-informed sustainable disease resistance in crops. This Research Topic published in the ‘Plant Biotic Interactions’ section of Frontiers in Plant Science and Frontiers in Microbiology aims at illustrating several of the recent achievements of the Xanthomonas community. We collected twelve manuscripts dealing with comparative genomics or T3E repertoires, including five focusing on TAL effectors which we hope will contribute to advance research on plant pathogenic bacteria.

Influenza Virus Vaccines and Immunotherapies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198115 Year: Pages: 185 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-811-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
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Influenza virus infections lead to thousands of deaths worldwide annually and billions of dollars economic burden. Despite continuing advances in our understanding of the immune evasion mechanism, the disease remains one of the foremost threat for human being. Traditional vaccines (attenuated and inactivated) mainly provide protection by inducing virus neutralizing antibodies, targeting ever changing surface antigens: Haemagultinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA). Due to genetic shift and immune selection pressure, prevalence of circulating influenza virus subtypes changes every year. Therefore, mismatch between circulating strain and vaccine strain can critically affect the success rate of these conventional flu vaccines, and requires continuous monitoring of circulating influenza virus subtypes and change in the vaccine formulations accordingly. The collective limitations of existing flu vaccines urgently call for the development of a novel universal vaccines that might provide the required protective immunity to a range of influenza virus subtypes. New approaches are being investigated mainly targeting conserved regions of flu proteins. Some of these approaches include universally conserved epitopes of HA, nucleoprotein (NP), capsid protein (M1) and ion channel protein (M2) that induced strong immune responses in animal models. Some attention and progress appears to be focused on vaccines based on the M2 ectodomain (M2e) employing a variety of constructs, adjuvants and delivery systems, including M2e-hepatitis B core antigen, flagellin constructs, and virus-like particles (VLP). Animal studies with these M2e candidate vaccines demonstrated that these vaccine candidates can prevent severe illness and death but not infection, which may pose difficulties in both the evaluation of clinical efficacy and approval by the regulatory authorities. VLP vaccines appear to be promising, but still are mostly limited to animal studies. The discovery and development of new and improved vaccines have been greatly facilitated by the application of new technologies. The use of nucleic acid-based vaccines, to combine the benefits of in-situ expression of antigens with the safety of inactivated and subunit vaccines, has been a key advancement. Upon their discovery more than 20 years ago, nucleic acid vaccines promised to be a safe and effective mean to mimic immunization with a live organism vaccine, particularly for induction of T cell immunity. In addition, the manufacturing of nucleic acid-based vaccines offered the potential to be relatively simple, inexpensive and generic. Reverse Vaccinology and in-silico designing of vaccines are very innovative approaches and being considered as future of vaccines. Furthermore, various immuno-therapeutic agents also being developed to treat and minimize immuno-pathological damage in patients suffering from life threatening complications. For the treatment of such pathological conditions, various novel approaches such as administration of immune suppressive cytokines, blocking co-stimulatory signals or activating co-inhibitory signal of T cell activation, are being tested both in lab and clinics. The Research Topic on influenza virus vaccine and therapeutics will give an insight in to the current status and future scope of these new innovative approaches and technologies. Moreover, these new methods will also serve as a reference tool for the development of future vaccines against several other pathogens.

History of Chemoattractant Research

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197019 Year: Pages: 61 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-701-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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In the Research Topic "History of Chemoattractant Research" we will portray some of the key discoveries that helped to transform cell migration research into a global playing field within immunology (and beyond). Early progress had a profound effect on both, academia and industry. Today, numerous academic laboratories are fully engaged in compiling a detailed road map describing the highly complex network of immune and tissue cells that respond to chemoattractants. Industrial research, on the other hand, centers on drugs that interfere with immune cell traffic in inflammatory diseases and cancer. The following series of “short stories” provide personal accounts on key discoveries. The individual molecular discoveries enabled numerous research laboratories worldwide to unravel their significance in steady-state or pathological immune processes. Although ground-breaking in their own right, it is therefore worth emphasizing that rapid progress in chemoattractant research was made possible by many other laboratories who were not directly involved in the original discovery process. Therefore, the authors of this mini-series are discussing their findings in the context of time, place and subsequent progress enabled by their discoveries. It is hoped that a wide readership will find these accounts entertaining as well as educational although those who wish to gain a more detailed knowledge are referred to the many outstanding reviews on chemokines and other chemoattractants.

Gut Health: The New Paradigm in Animal Production?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450299 Year: Pages: 163 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-029-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Gut health and specifically the gut microbiome-host interaction is currently a major research topic across the life sciences. In the case of animal sciences research into animal production and health, the gut has been a continuous area of interest. Production parameters such as growth and feed efficiency are entirely dependent on optimum gut health. In addition, the gut is a major immune organ and one of the first lines of defense in animal disease. Recent changes in animal production management and feed regulations, both regulatory and consumer driven, have placed added emphasis on finding ways to optimize gut health in novel and effective ways. In this volume we bring together original research and review articles covering three major categories of gut health and animal production: the gut microbiome, mucosal immunology, and feed-based interventions. Included within these categories is a broad range of scientific expertise and experimental approaches that span food animal production. Our goal in bringing together the articles on this research topic is to survey the current knowledge on gut health in animal production. The following 15 articles include knowledge and perspectives from researchers from multiple countries and research perspectives, all with the central goal of improving animal health and production.

Epigenetics as a Deep Intimate Dialogue between Host and Symbionts

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198757 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-875-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Symbiosis is an intimate relationship between different living entities and is widespread in virtually all organisms. It was critical for the origin and diversification of Eukaryotes and represents a major driving force in evolution. Indeed, symbiosis may support a wide range of biological processes, including those underlying the physiology, development, reproduction, health, behavior, ecology and evolution of the organisms involved in the relationship. Although often confused with mutualism, when both organisms benefit from the association, symbiosis actually encompasses several and variable relationships. Among them is parasitism, when one organism benefits but the other is harmed, and commensalism, when one organism benefits and the other remains unaffected. Even if many symbiotic lifestyles do exist in nature, in many cases the intimacy between the partners is so deep that the “symbiont” (sensu strictu) resides into the tissues and/or cells of the other partner. Since the partners frequently belong to different kingdoms, e.g. bacteria, fungi, protists and viruses living in association with animal and plant hosts, their shared “language” should be a basic and ancient form of communication able to effectively blur the boundaries between extremely different living entities. In recent years studies on the role of epigenetics in shaping host-symbiont interactions have been flourishing. Epigenetic changes include, but are not limited to, DNA methylation, remodelling of chromatin structure through histone chemical modifications and RNA interference. In this E-book we present a series of papers exploring the fascinating developmental and evolutionary relationship between symbionts and hosts, by focusing on the mediating epigenetic processes that enable the communication to be effective and robust at both the individual, the ecological and the evolutionary time scales. In particular, the papers consider the role of epigenetic factors and mechanisms in the interactions among different species, comprising the holobiont and host-parasite relationships. On the whole, since epigenetics is fast-acting and reversible, enabling dynamic developmental communication between hosts and symbionts at several different time scale, we argue that it could account for the enormous plasticity that characterizes the interactions between all the organisms living symbiotically on our planet.

CD1- and MR1-restricted T Cells in Antimicrobial Immunity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197507 Year: Pages: 189 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-750-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Cell-mediated immunity to extracellular and intracellular microbes has been traditionally linked to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that recognize pathogen-derived peptides in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and class I molecules, respectively. Recent progress in our understanding of early host defense mechanisms has brought ‘unconventional’, innate-like T cells into the spotlight. These are a heterogeneous population of non-MHC-restricted T cells that exhibit ‘memory-like’ properties and mount emergency responses to infection. They may directly detect and destroy infected cells, but are best known for their ability to regulate downstream effector cells including but not limited to conventional T cells. Innate-like T cells include among others CD1-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells and MR1-restricted mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. NKT cells recognize lipid antigens, and MAIT cells were recently demonstrated to respond to microbe-derived vitamin B metabolites. However, much remains to be learned about the antigen specificity range of these cells, their activation mode and their true potentials in immunotherapeutic applications. Like in many other areas of biology, uncertainties and controversies surrounding these cells and some of the experimental models, techniques and reagents employed to study them have brought about excitement and sometimes hot debates. This Special Topic was launched to provide updated reviews on protective and/or pathogenic roles of NKT and MAIT cells during infection. Leading experts discuss current controversies, pressing questions and the challenges that lie ahead for the advancement of this intriguing and rapidly evolving area of immunology. Unlike MHC, CD1 and MR1 display very limited polymorphism. Therefore, NKT and MAIT cells may be considered attractive targets for various diseases in diverse human populations. The potential benefits of NKT cell- and MAIT cell-based vaccination and treatment strategies in infectious diseases is an important subject that is also covered in this Topic.

Bacterial Exotoxins: How bacteria fight the immune system

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199914 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-991-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General) --- Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
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The goal of this research topic was to gather current knowledge on the interaction of bacterial exotoxins and effector proteins with the host immune system. The following 16 research and review articles in this special issue describe mechanisms of immune modification and evasion and provide an overview over the complexity of bacterial toxin interaction with different cells of the immune system.

Glycan Diversity in Fungi, Bacteria and Sea Organisms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199426 Year: Pages: 85 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-942-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Internal medicine
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The cell surface of fungi, bacteria and sea organisms is highly glycosylated. These glycans are oligo- or polysaccharide molecules that can be secreted or attached to protein or lipids forming glycoconjugates. They present extraordinary structural diversity that could explain their involvement in many fundamental cellular processes, including growth, differentiation and morphogenesis. Considerable advances have been made on the structural elucidation of these glycans. Their primary structures were determined based on a combination of mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy techniques. The combination of these sensitive and powerful techniques has allowed us to increase our structural knowledge of a wide variety of glycans expressed by different fungi, bacteria and sea organisms.

Immunogenic Cell Death in Cancer: From Benchside Research to Bedside

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198382 Year: Pages: 145 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-838-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-07 16:12:31
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Classically, anti-cancer therapies have always been applied with the primary aim of tumor debulking achieved through widespread induction of cancer cell death. While the role of host immune system is frequently considered as host protective in various (antigen-bearing) pathologies or infections yet in case of cancer overtime it was proposed that the host immune system either plays no role in therapeutic efficacy or plays a limited role that is therapeutically unemployable. The concept that the immune system is dispensable for the efficacy of anticancer therapies lingered on for a substantial amount of time; not only because evidence supporting the claim that anti-cancer immunity played a role were mainly contradictory, but also largely because it was considered acceptable (and sometimes still is) to test anticancer therapies in immunodeficient mice (i.e. SCID/athymic mice lacking adaptive immune system). This latter practice played a detrimental role in appreciating the role of anticancer immunity in cancer therapy. This scenario is epitomized by the fact that for a long time the very existence of cancer-associated antigens or cancer-associated ‘danger signaling’ remained controversial. However, over last several years this dogmatic view has been considerably modified. The existence of cancer-associated antigens and ‘danger signaling’ has been proven to be incontrovertible. These developments have together paved way for the establishment of the attractive concept of “immunogenic cell death” (ICD). It has been established that a restricted class of chemotherapeutics/targeted therapeutics, radiotherapy, photodynamic therapy and certain oncolytic viruses can induce a form of cancer cell death called ICD which is accompanied by spatiotemporally defined emission of danger signals. These danger signals along with other factors help cancer cells undergoing ICD to activate host innate immune cells, which in turn activate T cell-based immunity that helps eradicate live (or residual) surviving cancer cells. The emergence of ICD has been marred by some controversy. ICD has been criticized to be either experimental model or setting-specific or mostly a concept based on rodent studies that may have very limited implications for clinical application. However, in recent times it has emerged (through mainly retrospective or prognostic studies) that ICD can work in various human clinical settings hinting towards clinical applicability of ICD. However a widespread consensus on this issue is still transitional. In the current Research Topic we aimed to organize and intensify a discussion that strives to bring together the academic and clinical research community in order to provide a background to the current state-of-the-art in ICD associated bench-side research and to initiate fruitful discussions on present and future prospects of ICD translating towards the clinical, bedside reality.

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