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Character, Responsibility, and Well-Being: Influences on Mental Health and Constructive Behavior Patterns

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198221 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-822-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Character can be defined as self-aware knowledge that helps the individual to set goals, values and ethical principles (Cloninger, 2004). This meta-cognitive dimension of human personality involves ‘Theory of Mind’, and is positively related to measures of well-being, mental health, and constructive behavior patterns. Research from at least three different fields, cultural (Shweder, Much, Mahapatra & Park, 1997), personality (Cloninger, 2004), and social psychology (Abele & Wojcizke, 2007) suggest that character can be organized along three broad principles: agency, which is related to the autonomy and the fulfillment and enhancement of the self; communion, which is related to engagement in the protection and relations to others such as families, companies or nations; and spirituality, which is related to the human ability to transcend the self and find and interconnection with all life and appreciation of the whole world around us (Haidt, 2006; Cloninger, 2013). Using the Temperament and Character Inventory (Cloninger, Svrakic & Przybeck, 1993) researchers have found that agentic (i.e., Self-directedness) and communal (i.e., Cooperativeness) values are associated to high levels of happiness, psychological well-being, and less violent behavior. Moreover, low Self-directedness and Cooperativeness is recurrent among individuals with all types of mental health problems, such as, depression, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and et cetera. Spirituality, in coherence with agency and communion, guides the individual to seek self-realization in harmony with others and nature in the changing world (Cloninger, 2013). Seeing character as self-awareness of the self in three dimensions has also been associated to human responsibility and empowerment. This Research Topic will focus on all article types that put forward findings regarding:•Character as a protective factor against mental illness•Character’s association to conduct disorders and violent behavior•Character as a promoter of happiness, life satisfaction, and well-being•The etiology of character•Longitudinal studies on character•Agency, communion, and spirituality as broad dimensions for the conceptualization of positive measures of mental health•Innovative methods to measure or conceptualize character•Non-linear effects of character on mental health•Character as a measure/conceptualization of responsibility•Character in school and work place settings•Character in relation to empowerment.

Emotional Intelligence and Cognitive Abilities

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199228 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-922-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Nowadays, not only psychologists are interested in the study of Emotional Intelligence (EI). Teachers, educator, managers, employers, and people, in general, pay attention to EI. For example, teachers would like to know how EI could affect student’s academic results, and managers are concerned about how EI influences their employees’ performance. The concept of EI has been widely used in recent years to the extent that people start to applying it in daily life. EI is broadly defined as the capacity to process and use emotional information. More specifically, according to Mayer and Salovey, EI is the ability to: “1) accurate perception, appraise, and expression of emotion; 2) access and/or generation of feelings when they facilitate thought; 3) understand emotions and emotional knowledge; and 4) regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth” (Mayer and Salovey 1997, p. 10). When new information arises into one specific area of knowledge, the work of the scientists is to investigate the relation between this new information and other established concepts. In this sense, EI could be considered as a new framework to explain human behaviour. As a young concept in Psychology, EI could be used to elucidate the performance in the activities of everyday life. Over the past two decades, studies of EI have tried to delimitate how EI is linked to other competences. A vast number of studies have reported a relation between EI and a large list of competences such as academic and work success, life satisfaction, attendee to emotions, assertiveness, emotional expression, emotional-based decision making, impulsive control, stress management, among others. Moreover, recent researches have shown that EI plays an important role in the prediction of behaviour besides personality and cognitive factors.However, it is not until quite recently, that studies on EI have considered the importance of individual differences in EI and their interaction with cognitive abilities.The general issue of this Research Topic was to expose the role of individual differences on EI in the development of a large number of competencies that support a more efficient performance in people’s everyday life. The present Research Topic provide an extensive review that may give light to the better understanding of how individual differences in EI affect human behaviour. We have considered studies that analyse: 1) how EI contributes to emotional, cognitive and social process beyond the well-known contribution of IQ and personality traits, as well as the brain system that supports the EI; 2) how EI contributes to relationships among emotions and health and well-being, 3) the roles of EI during early development and the evaluation in different populations, 4) how implicit beliefs about emotions and EI influence emotional abilities.

Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197637 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-763-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Dear Readers,If you are engaged in the treatment of patients with MS (pwMS), this e-book’s aim is to offer novel insights to improve on an understanding of one of the major problems of pwMS: fatigue. Although there is increasing research into fatigue and its impact on MS, this collection of ten articles supports a better understanding of fatigue in MS patients. It explores pathophysiological concepts, provoking mechanisms, objective measurements, personality interactions, pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions and summarizes clinical management. It is written by neurologists, psychologists, scientists and therapists and addresses this group of people, who deal with pwMS in private, clinical, rehabilitation or scientific settings. Its aim is to communicate high-quality information, knowledge and experience on MS to healthcare professionals, while providing global support for the international MS community.

Historical Roots of Psychopathology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199334 Year: Pages: 60 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-933-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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New advances of the neuroscience supported by a refined, reliable and valid phenotyping (e.g., at the level of symptoms and not at the level of disorders), are bringing some promising results. The mapping of clinical phenomenology on specific brain dysfunction is now becoming plausible and the resulting functional psychopathology may in the future significantly replace the present nosology (Jablensky, 2010). Nevertheless, as Andreasen (2007) points out: “Applying technology without companionship of wise clinicians with specific expertise in psychopathology will be a lonely, sterile and perhaps fruitless enterprise.” Some of the chapters of this Ebook deal with aspects which are essential to the historical understanding of mental symptoms and disorders.

Individual Differences: From Neurobiological Bases to New Insight on Approach and Avoidance Behavior

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197156 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-715-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The superordinate division of emotions is distributed along a bipolar dimension of affective valence, from approaching rewarding situations to avoiding punitive situations. Avoiding and approaching behaviors determine the disposition to the primary emotions of fear and attachment and the behavioral responses to the environmental stimuli of danger, novelty and reward. Approach or avoidance behaviors are associated with the brain pathways controlling cognitive and attentional function, reward sensitivity and emotional expression, involving prefrontal cortex, amygdala, striatum and cerebellum. Individual differences in approach and avoidance behavior might be modulated by normal variance in the level of functioning of different neurotransmitter systems, such as dopaminergic, serotoninergic, noradrenergic and endocannabinoid systems as well as many peptides such as corticotropin releasing hormone. These substances act at various central target areas to increase intensity of appetitive or defensive motivation. Physiologically, personality temperaments of approach and avoidance are viewed as instigators of propensity. They produce immediate affective, cognitive and behavioral inclinations in response to stimuli and orient individuals across domains and situations in a consistent fashion. Although the action undoubtedly emerges directly from these temperamental proclivities, ultimate behavioral outcomes are often a function of the integration among goal pursuit, self-regulation, and temperament trait. Defective coping strategies to aversive or rewarding stimuli characterize the patho-physiology of anxiety- and stress-related disorders or compulsive and addiction behaviors, respectively. Individuals with neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, suicidal behavior, bipolar mania, schizophrenia, substance use disorders, pathological gambling and anxiety disorders have scores which fall at the extreme tails of the normal distribution for a specific temperamental trait. The present Research Topic on the individual differences in emotional and motivational processing emphasizes the link between neuronal pattern and behavioral expression. The Topic includes experimental and clinical researches addressing the individual differences related to approach and avoidance and their behavioral characterization, structural and neurochemical profiles, synaptic connections, and receptor expressions. Studies are organized in a framework that puts in evidence the phenotypic expression and neurobiological patterns characterizing the individual differences and their biological variance.

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