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Engineering a Safer World

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Book Series: Engineering Systems ISBN: 9780262016629 9780262533690 Year: Pages: 560 Language: English
Publisher: The MIT Press
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:41:31
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A new approach to safety, based on systems thinking, that is more effective, less costly, and easier to use than current techniques.Engineering has experienced a technological revolution, but the basic engineering techniques applied in safety and reliability engineering, created in a simpler, analog world, have changed very little over the years. In this groundbreaking book, Nancy Leveson proposes a new approach to safety—more suited to today's complex, sociotechnical, software-intensive world—based on modern systems thinking and systems theory. Revisiting and updating ideas pioneered by 1950s aerospace engineers in their System Safety concept, and testing her new model extensively on real-world examples, Leveson has created a new approach to safety that is more effective, less expensive, and easier to use than current techniques.Arguing that traditional models of causality are inadequate, Leveson presents a new, extended model of causation (Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes, or STAMP), then shows how the new model can be used to create techniques for system safety engineering, including accident analysis, hazard analysis, system design, safety in operations, and management of safety-critical systems. She applies the new techniques to real-world events including the friendly-fire loss of a U.S. Blackhawk helicopter in the first Gulf War; the Vioxx recall; the U.S. Navy SUBSAFE program; and the bacterial contamination of a public water supply in a Canadian town. Leveson's approach is relevant even beyond safety engineering, offering techniques for “reengineering” any large sociotechnical system to improve safety and manage risk.

Keywords

cybernetics --- safety

GASFLOW-MPI: A Scalable Computational Fluid Dynamics Code for Gases, Aerosols and Combustion. Band 1 (Theory and Computational Model (Revision 1.0) und Band 2 (Users' Manual). (KIT Scientific Reports ; 7710 und 7711)

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ISBN: 9783731504474 Year: Pages: 400 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000050392 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is developing the parallel computational fluid dynamics code GASFLOW-MPI as a best-estimate tool for predicting transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containments and other facility buildings. GASFLOW-MPI is a finite-volume code based on proven computational fluid dynamics methodology that solves the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for three-dimensional volumes in Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates.

How Fear and Stress Shape the Mind

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198719 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-871-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The experience of fear and stress leaves an indelible trace on the brain. This indelible trace is observed as both changes in behavior and changes in neuronal structure and function. Fear and stress interact on many levels. The experience of stress may lead to the formation of a fearful memory trace of a place or reminder cue, and fearful memory formation is regulated by the extent of concurrent stress. The concurrent experience of fear and stress may amplify fear and slow fear extinction which may lead to pathology. Fear memory formation involves changes in synaptic plasticity while stress and glucocorticoids change neuronal structure. Thus, both neurons and synapses are changed. These changes can be identified, visualised and mapped within focused microcircuits. In this Research Topic we focus on current advances in both the neurobiology and behavioral consequences of fear and stress.

Precarious Claims: The Promise and Failure of Workplace Protections in the United States

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ISBN: 9780520288782 9780520963603 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.1525/luminos.19 Language: English
Publisher: University of California Press
Subject: Law --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-10-10 11:01:24
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Precarious Claims tells the human story behind the bureaucratic process of fighting for justice in the U.S. workplace. The global economy has fueled vast concentrations of wealth that have driven a demand for cheap and flexible labor. Workplace violations such as wage theft, unsafe work environments, and discrimination are widespread in low-wage industries such as restaurants, retail, hospitality, and domestic work, where jobs are often held by immigrants and other vulnerable workers. Despite the challenges they face, these workers do seek justice. Why and how do they come forward,and what happens once they do? Based on extensive fieldwork in Northern California, Shannon Gleeson investigates the array of gatekeepers with whom workers must negotiate in the labor standards enforcement bureaucracy and, ultimately, the limited reach of formal legal protections. Gleeson also tracks how workplace injustices—and the arduous process of contesting them—have long-term effects on their everyday lives. Workers sometimes win, but their chances are precarious at best.

Polymer Reactor Modeling, Design and Monitoring

ISBN: 9783038422549 9783038422556 Year: Pages: X, 204 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-19 11:47:52
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Polymers range from synthetic plastics, such as polyacrylates, to natural biopolymers, such as proteins and DNA. The large molecular mass of polymers and our ability to manipulate their compositions and molecular structures have allowed for producing synthetic polymers with attractive properties. new polymers with remarkable characteristics are synthesized. Because of the huge production volume of commodity polymers, a little improvement in the operation of commodity-polymer processes can lead to significant economic gains. On the other hand, a little improvement in the quality of specialty polymers can lead to substantial increase in economic profits.

Sensors for Food Safety and Quality

ISBN: 9783038421993 9783038422006 Year: Pages: 334 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-07 11:19:06
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Safer Healthcare: Strategies for the Real World

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ISBN: 9783319255576 9783319255590 Year: Pages: 157 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-25559-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Pharmacy and materia medica --- Medicine (General) --- Biotechnology --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Business and Management --- Manufactures
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-27 16:39:43
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The authors of this book set out a system of safety strategies and interventions for managing patient safety on a day-to-day basis and improving safety over the long term. These strategies are applicable at all levels of the healthcare system from the frontline to the regulation and governance of the system.There have been many advances in patient safety, but we now need a new and broader vision that encompasses care throughout the patient’s journey. The authors argue that we need to see safety through the patient’s eyes, to consider how safety is managed in different contexts and to develop a wider strategic and practical vision in which patient safety is recast as the management of risk over time. Most safety improvement strategies aim to improve reliability and move closer toward optimal care. However, healthcare will always be under pressure and we also require ways of managing safety when conditions are difficult. We need to make more use of strategies concerned with detecting, controlling, managing and responding to risk. Strategies for managing safety in highly standardised and controlled environments are necessarily different from those in which clinicians constantly have to adapt and respond to changing circumstances.This work is supported by the Health Foundation. The Health Foundation is an independent charity committed to bringing about better health and health care for people in the UK.The charity’s aim is a healthier population in the UK, supported by high quality health care that can be equitably accessed. The Foundation carries out policy analysis and makes grants to front-line teams to try ideas in practice and supports research into what works to make people’s lives healthier and improve the health care system, with a particular emphasis on how to make successful change happen.A key part of the work is to make links between the knowledge of those working to deliver health and health care with research evidence and analysis. The aspiration is to create a virtuous circle, using what works on the ground to inform effective policymaking and vice versa. Good health and health care are vital for a flourishing society. Through sharing what is known, collaboration and building people’s skills and knowledge, the Foundation aims to make a difference and contribute to a healthier population.

Managing the Complexity of Critical Infrastructures: A Modelling and Simulation Approach

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Studies in Systems, Decision and Control ISSN: 2198-4182 ISBN: 9783319510422 9783319510439 Year: Volume: 90 Pages: 299 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-51043-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Business and Management --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Pharmacy and materia medica --- Manufactures --- Computer Science --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-14 12:45:46
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This book summarizes work being pursued in the context of the CIPRNet (Critical Infrastructure Preparedness and Resilience Research Network) research project, co-funded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). The project is intended to provide concrete and on-going support to the Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) research communities, enhancing their preparedness for CI-related emergencies, while also providing expertise and technologies for other stakeholders to promote their understanding and mitigation of the consequences of CI disruptions, leading to enhanced resilience. The book collects the tutorial material developed by the authors for several courses on the modelling, simulation and analysis of CIs, representing extensive and integrated CIP expertise. It will help CI stakeholders, CI operators and civil protection authorities understand the complex system of CIs, and help them adapt to these changes and threats in order to be as prepared as possible for mitigating emergencies and crises affecting or arising from CIs.

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