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The evolution of grounded spatial language

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Book Series: Computational Models of Language Evolution ISBN: 9783946234142 9783946234159 9783944675466 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_611695 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Computer Science --- Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-07-13 11:01:21
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This book presents groundbreaking robotic experiments on how and why spatial language evolves. It provides detailed explanations of the origins of spatial conceptualization strategies, spatial categories, landmark systems and spatial grammar by tracing the interplay of environmental conditions, communicative and cognitive pressures. The experiments discussed in this book go far beyond previous approaches in grounded language evolution. For the first time, agents can evolve not only particular lexical systems but also evolve complex conceptualization strategies underlying the emergence of category systems and compositional semantics. Moreover, many issues in cognitive science, ranging from perception and conceptualization to language processing, had to be dealt with to instantiate these experiments, so that this book contributes not only to the study of language evolution but to the investigation of the cognitive bases of spatial language as well.

Deep Mapping

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ISBN: 9783038421658 9783038421665 Year: Pages: 250 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-166-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-03 11:19:27
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Quantitative analysis of neuroanatomy

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197965 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-796-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The true revolution in the age of digital neuroanatomy is the ability to extensively quantify anatomical structures and thus investigate structure-function relationships in great detail. Large-scale projects were recently launched with the aim of providing infrastructure for brain simulations. These projects will increase the need for a precise understanding of brain structure, e.g., through statistical analysis and models. From articles in this Research Topic, we identify three main themes that clearly illustrate how new quantitative approaches are helping advance our understanding of neural structure and function. First, new approaches to reconstruct neurons and circuits from empirical data are aiding neuroanatomical mapping. Second, methods are introduced to improve understanding of the underlying principles of organization. Third, by combining existing knowledge from lower levels of organization, models can be used to make testable predictions about a higher-level organization where knowledge is absent or poor. This latter approach is useful for examining statistical properties of specific network connectivity when current experimental methods have not yet been able to fully reconstruct whole circuits of more than a few hundred neurons.

European Handbook of Crowdsourced Geographic Information

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9781909188792 9781909188808 9781909188815 9781909188822 Year: Pages: 474 DOI: 10.5334/bax Language: English
Publisher: Ubiquity Press
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Geography --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-10-10 11:01:33
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"This book focuses on the study of the remarkable new source of geographic information that has become available in the form of user-generated content accessible over the Internet through mobile and Web applications. The exploitation, integration and application of these sources, termed volunteered geographic information (VGI) or crowdsourced geographic information (CGI), offer scientists an unprecedented opportunity to conduct research on a variety of topics at multiple scales and for diversified objectives. The Handbook is organized in five parts, addressing the fundamental questions: What motivates citizens to provide such information in the public domain, and what factors govern/predict its validity?What methods might be used to validate such information? Can VGI be framed within the larger domain of sensor networks, in which inert and static sensors are replaced or combined by intelligent and mobile humans equipped with sensing devices? What limitations are imposed on VGI by differential access to broadband Internet, mobile phones, and other communication technologies, and by concerns over privacy? How do VGI and crowdsourcing enable innovation applications to benefit human society? Chapters examine how crowdsourcing techniques and methods, and the VGI phenomenon, have motivated a multidisciplinary research community to identify both fields of applications and quality criteria depending on the use of VGI. Besides harvesting tools and storage of these data, research has paid remarkable attention to these information resources, in an age when information and participation is one of the most important drivers of development. The collection opens questions and points to new research directions in addition to the findings that each of the authors demonstrates. Despite rapid progress in VGI research, this Handbook also shows that there are technical, social, political and methodological challenges that require further studies and research."

Agent-Based Modelling and Landscape Change

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038422808 9783038422815 Year: Pages: XII, 314 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-281-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2016-10-13 14:09:44
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The use of agent-based models (ABMs) and modelling for understanding landscape change and dynamics continues to grow. One reason for the popularity of ABMs is that they provide a framework to represent multiple, discrete, multi-faceted, heterogeneous actors (human or otherwise) and their relationships and interactions between one another and their environment, through time and across space. This collection showcases innovative uses of ABMs for investigating and explaining landscape change and dynamics and to explore and identify how researchers in different disciplines can learn from one another to further innovate. The diverse range of processes and landscapes that ABMs are currently used to examine is clearly demonstrated, including: land-use decision making in agricultural landscapes; soil erosion in semi-arid environments; forest change in mountainous landscapes; trade in 1st Century BC southern France; social adaptations of herders in northern Mongolia; and malaria epidemiology in Kenya. A range of agent-based representation is used from the implied presence of agents, through comparing heterogeneous vs. aggregated representation of human activity, to alternative means of parameterizing individual agent behaviour. The collection will be of interest to all interested in innovative agent-based modelling for understanding landscape change, its causes and consequences for sustainability in the Anthropocene.

Turning the Mind's Eye Inward: The Interplay between Selective Attention and Working Memory

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197217 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-721-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Historically, cognitive sciences have considered selective attention and working memory as largely separated cognitive functions. That is, selective attention as a concept is typically reserved for the processes that allow for the prioritization of specific sensory input, while working memory entails more central structures for maintaining (and operating on) temporary mental representations. However, over the last decades various observations have been reported that question such sharp distinction. Most importantly, information stored in working memory has been shown to modulate selective attention processing – and vice versa. At the theoretical level, these observations are paralleled by an increasingly dominant focus on working memory as (involving) the attended part of long-term memory, with some positions considering that working memory is equivalent to selective attention turned to long-term memory representations – or internal selective attention. This questions the existence of working memory as a dedicated cognitive function and raises the need for integrative accounts of working memory and attention. The next step will be to explore the precise implications of attentional accounts of WM for the understanding of specific aspects and characteristics of WM, such as serial order processing, its modality-specificity, its capacity limitations, its relation with executive functions, as well as the nature of attentional mechanisms involved. This research topic in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience aims at bringing together the latest insights and findings about the interplay between working memory and selective attention.

LED Farbmischung mit chaotischen Lichtleitern

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Book Series: Spektrum der Lichttechnik / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Lichttechnisches Institut ISSN: 21951152 ISBN: 9783731504801 Year: Volume: 11 Pages: III, 216 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000051748 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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This book describes a systematical method to efficiently and homogeneously mix rays of different coloured Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in both the angular and spatial domain. The focus of this work is the application of chaotic billiard geometries on the cross section of a light guide. Such a chaotic light guide offers the possibility to achieve complete colour mixing according to deterministic chaos theory.

Applications of Spatial Statistics

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ISBN: 9789535127567 9789535127574 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.5772/61666 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:10

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Spatial statistics has been widely used in many environmental studies. This book is a collection of recent studies on applying spatial statistics in subjects such as demography, transportation, precision agriculture and ecology. Different subjects require different aspects of spatial statistics. In addition to quantitative statements from statistics and tests, visualization in forms of maps, drawings, and images are provided to illustrate the relationship between data and locations. This book will be valuable to researchers who are interested in applying statistics to spatial data, as well as graduate students who know statistics and want to explore how it can be applied to spatial data. With the processing part being simplified to several mouse clicks by commercial software, one should pay more attention to justification of using spatial statistics, as well as interpretation and assessment of the results. GIScience proves to be a useful tool in visualization of spatial data, and such useful technology should be utilized, as part, for the interpretation and assessment of the results.

How and Why Does Spatial-Hearing Ability Differ among Listeners? What Is the Role of Learning and Multisensory Interactions?

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198566 Year: Pages: 253 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-856-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Spatial-hearing ability has been found to vary widely across listeners. A survey of the existing auditory-space perception literature suggests that three main types of factors may account for this variability:- physical factors, e.g., acoustical characteristics related to sound-localization cues,- perceptual factors, e.g., sensory/cognitive processing, perceptual learning, multisensory interactions,- and methodological factors, e.g., differences in stimulus presentation methods across studies.However, the extent to which these–and perhaps other, still unidentified—factors actually contribute to the observed variability in spatial hearing across individuals with normal hearing or within special populations (e.g., hearing-impaired listeners) remains largely unknown. Likewise, the role of perceptual learning and multisensory interactions in the emergence of a multimodal but unified representation of “auditory space,” is still an active topic of research. A better characterization and understanding of the determinants of inter-individual variability in spatial hearing, and of its relationship with perceptual learning and multisensory interactions, would have numerous benefits. In particular, it would enhance the design of rehabilitative devices and of human-machine interfaces involving auditory, or multimodal space perception, such as virtual auditory/multimodal displays in aeronautics, or navigational aids for the visually impaired. For this Research Topic, we have considered manuscripts that:- present new methods, or review existing methods, for the study of inter-individual differences;- present new data (or review existing) data, concerning acoustical features relevant for explaining inter-individual differences in sound-localization performance;- present new (or review existing) psychophysical or neurophysiological findings concerning spatial hearing and/or auditory perceptual learning, and/or multisensory interactions in humans (normal or impaired, young or older listeners) or other species;- discuss the influence of inter-individual differences on the design and use of assistive listening devices (rehabilitation) or human-machine interfaces involving spatial hearing or multimodal perception of space (ergonomy).

People, Places and Policy

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Regions and Cities ISBN: 9781315683904 9781138925205 9781317407577 9781317407560 9781317407553 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9781315683904 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:15
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The Open Access version of this book, available at www.tandfebooks.com, has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license. Set within the context of UK devolution and constitutional change, People, Places and Policy offers important and interesting insights into ‘place-making’ and ‘locality-making’ in contemporary Wales. Combining policy research with policy-maker and stakeholder interviews at various spatial scales (local, regional, national), it examines the historical processes and working practices that have produced the complex political geography of Wales. This book looks at the economic, social and political geographies of Wales, which in the context of devolution and public service governance are hotly debated. It offers a novel ‘new localities’ theoretical framework for capturing the dynamics of locality-making, to go beyond the obsession with boundaries and coterminous geographies expressed by policy-makers and politicians. Three localities – Heads of the Valleys (north of Cardiff), central and west coast regions (Ceredigion, Pembrokeshire and the former district of Montgomeryshire in Powys) and the A55 corridor (from Wrexham to Holyhead) – are discussed in detail to illustrate this and also reveal the geographical tensions of devolution in contemporary Wales. This book is an original statement on the making of contemporary Wales from the Wales Institute of Social and Economic Research, Data and Methods (WISERD) researchers. It deploys a novel ‘new localities’ theoretical framework and innovative mapping techniques to represent spatial patterns in data. This allows the timely uncovering of both unbounded and fuzzy relational policy geographies, and the more bounded administrative concerns, which come together to produce and reproduce over time Wales’ regional geography.

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