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Sleep and Chronobiology in Plasticity and Memory

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197460 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-746-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Abstract

Chronobiological mechanisms regulating time-of-day mediated behaviors, such as sleep and circadian rhythms, are thought to interact with and/or share cellular and molecular signaling cascades that shape synaptic plasticity and neural excitability. These same factors are also known to underlie events that govern higher-order cognitive processing, including learning and memory formation, and often through phylogenetically conserved pathways. This suggests that factors which contribute to adaptive responses to changing environmental stimuli are likely derived from basic evolutionarily ancient processes, and underscores the importance of using both invertebrate and vertebrate models to study the interaction of chronobiology and cognitive processing. This issue highlights current views along with original research on sleep and circadian features of plasticity and memory in multiple species, models, and systems.

Keywords

Sleep --- circadian rhythms --- Memory --- plasticity --- Learning --- synapse

Molecular Nanomachines of the Presynaptic Terminal

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199983 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-998-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Synaptic transmission is the basis of neuronal communication and is thus the most important element in brain functions, ranging from sensory input to information processing. Changes in synaptic transmission can result in the formation or dissolution of memories, and can equally lead to neurological and psychiatric disorders. The proteins composing the synapse, and their respective functions, are getting increasingly known. One aspect that has become evident in the last years is that most synaptic functions are performed not by single proteins, but by highly organized multi-protein machineries, which interact dynamically to provide responses optimally suited to the needs of the neuronal network. To decipher synaptic and neuronal function, it is essential to understand the organisational, morphological and functional aspects of the molecular nanomachines that operate at the synapse. We discuss these aspects in 11 different chapters, focusing on the structure and function of the active zone, on the functional anatomy of the synaptic vesicle, and on some of the best known soluble protein complexes from the synapse, including those involved in endocytosis and vesicle recycling.

Morphogens in the wiring of the nervous system

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197811 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-781-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Neuronal function relies on the establishment of proper connections between neurons and their target cells during development. This basic statement involves several cellular processes, such as neuronal differentiation, the polarized outgrowth of axons and dendrites from differentiated neurons, and the pathfinding of axons towards target cells. The subsequent recognition of complementary synaptic partners finally triggers the formation, maturation, and maintenance of functional synapses. Morphogens are secreted signaling molecules commanding tissue patterning and cell identity during early embryonic development. Remarkably, growing evidence over the last years arising from different invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms has shown that, after cell fate has been established, morphogens also control the precise wiring and function in the developing and mature nervous system. Accordingly, dysfunctions of the signaling pathways activated by these molecules contribute to synaptic disassembly and altered function in diseases affecting the nervous system. We consider it timely to bring together cumulative evidence pointing to crucial roles for signaling activated by different morphogens in the establishment of precise contacts between neurons and their synaptic partners. Therefore, this research topic issue combines review and research articles aimed to cover the functional relevance of such morphogens on the different steps involved in synaptic assembly and function. Diverse model systems of physiological or pathological conditions have been included, as well as different cellular, biochemical and molecular approaches. Altogether, they contribute in different and complementary ways to build a holistic view of the roles that early development morphogens play during the assembly, maintenance and/or regeneration of functional synapses.

Keywords

Morphogens --- Nervous System --- synapse --- Neurogenesis --- neurodegeneration --- Wnt --- BMP --- Shh

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2016 (3)