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Non-invasive Brain Stimulation in Neurology and Psychiatry

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451340 Year: Pages: 207 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-134-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Brain stimulation techniques, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS), modify brain function through interaction with multiple neurotransmitters and networks. The implementation of these non-invasive stimulation techniques in physiology, behavioral studies, with modelling or functional imaging has provided an outstanding causal link between brain structure and function and helped identify neural networks mediating cognitive or motor function. The potential efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulation procedures for the management of specific symptoms in diverse neurological and psychiatric conditions has been tested in the past decade or so. For example, repetitive TMS over prefrontal areas has been extensively investigated as a treatment for patients with medication-resistant depression and has been shown to be associated with improvement of mood. Similarly, non-invasive stimulation techniques have been applied to various symptoms of Parkinson’s disease such as bradykinesia and dyskinesias, with variables degrees of success reported. However, attempts to expand previously observed clinical improvements to other neurological disorders (e.g. Tourette’s syndrome, autism, epilepsy) has been controversial. In trying to bypass potential confounding elements, researchers aim to target neural populations altered in disease to either increase or decrease their corrupted baseline activity. In addition, a complementary approach is to extend stimulation protocols that results enhanced behavior in healthy participants. One of the potential limitation of this latter strategy has been that most of the protocols evaluated in healthy participants have been tested in populations that are not comparable to the patient populations. This Frontiers Research Topic on non-invasive brain stimulation and enhancement of function seeks to combine contributions from researchers who found non-invasive brain stimulation induced improvement of either a motoric, cognitive or behavioral nature investigated behaviorally, physiologically or using brain imaging techniques in clinical populations. Investigation of the relation between enhancement of function in healthy populations and improvement of symptoms in patients with neurological or psychiatric disorders needs further consideration. Critically, the topic will be centered on the following topics to expand current knowledge: • selection of adequate stimulation protocols, including simple questions such as whether TMS or TDCS is more efficacious for inducing enhancement of function in brain disease; • methodological issues such as optimizing cortical targets and the use of good control groups; • which symptoms to tackle in different brain disorders. For example, is it possible to de-activate hyperactive cortical regions present in Parkinson disease to induce clinical amelioration? Do protocols used in healthy populations produce similar predictable effects in parkinsonian persons?; • potential of using stimulation protocols in combination with pharmacological or cognitive therapy; • the use of appropriate clinical, behavioral, physiological and imaging tools to measure brain plastic changes. Consideration about possible multi-centre clinical trials: feasibility, problems and authorization pathways. Studies or reviews on cost-effectiveness. The aim of this topic is to determine which disease signs are treatable with non-invasive brain stimulation and available protocols to interfere with altered brain systems and produce enhanced motor and behavior outcomes. This Frontiers Research Topic will be important in identifying new avenues of clinical research for rapid advances in the field.

Mind-Brain Plasticity and Rehabilitation of Cognitive Functions: What Techniques Have Been Proven Effective?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451876 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-187-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Rehabilitation of cognitive functions is a primary goal in neurological and psychiatric settings. Cognitive treatments include individual and group exercises, as well as the use of computer programs and virtual reality. Besides, ongoing studies have been examining the clinical usefulness of non-invasive cerebral cortex stimulation in increasing the efficacy of cognitive protocols. Cognitive rehabilitation is based on neuroplasticity and affects brain morphological and physiological responses by integration of behavioral and cognitive changes. The brain correlates of rehabilitation-induced modifications can be investigated through magnetic resonance imaging, both at structural and functional macro-levels. Animal research can integrate such information providing data on axonal regrowth and reshaping of synaptic connectivity in response to treatment. Animal models of neurological and psychiatric conditions have been developed, and preclinical test batteries for the assessment of cognitive functions in animal models of such conditions have been created. The question is then: how does rehabilitation drive reorganization at the neuronal level? The focus of this Research Topic is on rehabilitation-induced cognitive and neural plasticity in adult humans and animal models. The goal is to provide an integrated picture highlighting what techniques have been proven to be effective.

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications

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ISBN: 9783038425380 9783038425397 Year: Pages: VIII, 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-539-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-27 12:48:49
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The issue is dedicated to applications of Deep Brain Stimulation and, in this issue, we would like to highlight the new developments that are taking place in the field. These include the application of new technology to existing indications, as well as ‘new’ indications. We would also like to highlight the most recent clinical evidence from international multicentre trials. The issue will include articles relating to movement disorders, pain, psychiatric indications, as well as emerging indications that are not yet accompanied by clinical evidence. We look forward to your expert contribution to this exciting issue.

Online and Offline Modulators of Motor Learning

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451661 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-166-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Both the acquisition of new and the modification of previously acquired motor skills are necessary to achieve optimal levels of motor performance in everyday functioning as well as to attain expert performance levels that are evident in sports and arts. A multitude of factors have been shown to influence the various stages of the learning process, from the acquisition (i.e., motor memory encoding) to the consolidation and subsequent retention of a skill. These factors, or modulators, can affect learning through online processes taking place during practice of a new motor skill or through offline processes occurring in the absence of task performance (i.e., after training sessions). Although much of the recent research from various disciplines has placed an increased emphasis on identifying factors that can influence the motor learning process, we lack an integrated understanding of online and offline determinants of motor skill behaviours. Potential motor learning modulators include, but are certainly not limited to, stress, anxiety, attention, executive functioning, social interaction, stimulus-response mapping, training schedule/regimen, learning environment, vigilance/consciousness states including sleep, wakefulness or meditation, brain stimulation, interference as well as resting state brain connectivity. Pathological and non-pathological (i.e., development or aging) changes in the brain can also be conceptualized as potential modulators. The aim of this Research Topic is to bridge research from the cognitive, sensory, motor and psychological domains using various behavioural paradigms and neuroimaging techniques in order to provide a comprehensive view of the online and offline modulators of motor learning, and how they interact to influence motor performance. Critically, the overarching goal is to gain a better understanding of how motor behaviour can be optimized. We believe that merging research from diverse neuroscientific communities would contribute to fulfilling this goal and potentially highlight possible shared neurophysiological mechanisms influencing motor learning.

Revisiting the Effectiveness of Transcranial Direct Current Brain Stimulation for Cognition: Evidence, Challenges, and Open Questions

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453252 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-325-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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The aim of this Frontiers Research Topic is to assemble a collection of papers from experts in the field of non-invasive brain stimulation that will discuss (1) the strength of the evidence regarding the potential of tDCS to modulate different aspects of cognition; (2) methodological caveats associated with the technique that may account for the variability in the reported findings; and (3) a set of challenges and future directions for the use of tDCS that can determine its potential as a reliable method for cognitive rehabilitation, maintenance, or enhancement.

Pathophysiology of the Basal Ganglia and Movement Disorders: Gaining New Insights from Modeling and Experimentation to Influence the Clinic

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453177 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-317-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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The basal ganglia constitute a group of subcortical structures, highly interconnected among themselves, as well as with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and other brain areas. These nuclei play a central role in the control of voluntary movement, and their specific pathology comprises the group of diseases known as movement disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, dystonia and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, among others. Additionally, the presence of a number of circuits within the basal ganglia related to non-motor functions has been acknowledged. Currently, the basal ganglia are thought to participate in cognitive, limbic and learning functions. Moreover, disorders related to the basal ganglia are known to involve a number of complex, non-motor symptoms and syndromes (e.g. compulsive and addictive behavior). In the light of this evidence, it is becoming clear that our knowledge about the basal ganglia needs to be revised, and that new pathophysiological models of movement disorders are needed. In this context, the study of the pathophysiology of the basal ganglia and the treatment of their pathology is becoming increasingly interdisciplinary. Nowadays, an appropriate approach to the study of these problems must necessarily involve the use of complex mathematical modeling, computer simulations, basic research (ranging from biomolecular studies to animal experimentation), and clinical research. This research topic aims to bring together the most recent advances related to the pathophysiology of the basal ganglia and movement disorders.

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