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Advanced Neuroimaging Methods for Studying Autism Disorder

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453160 Year: Pages: 141 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-316-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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In the last twenty years, many attempts have been made to provide neurobiological models of autism. Functional, structural and connectivity analyses have highlighted reduced responses in key social areas, such as amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and superior temporal sulcus. However, these studies present discrepant results and some of them have been questioned for methodological limitations. The aim of this research topic is to present advanced neuroimaging methods able to capture the complexity of the neural deficits displayed in autism. This special issue presents new studies using structural and functional MRI, as well as magnetoencephalography, and novel protocols to analyze data (Analysis of Cluster Variability, Noise Reduction Strategies, Source-based Morphometry, Functional Connectivity Density, Restriction Spectrum Imaging and the others). We believe it is time to integrate data provided by different techniques and methodologies in order to have a better understanding of autism.

Ventricular Mechanics in Congenital Heart Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452644 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-264-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Looking at "Horse in Motion", the iconic photograph by E. Muybridge, it is almost possible to hear the horse galloping. The pounding sound of the hoofs hitting the ground -like a drum- can also echo the rythmic beating of the human heart. That sound, that visceral rhythm, reminds us of the link between motion and performance: the perfectly executed stride of the horse, the incredible coordination of multiscale phenomena behind a heart beat. Furthermore, the decomposed sequence in Muybridge's photograph has become a well-known example of breaking motion into its components over time, and as such is reminiscent of those images that are routinely acquired in clinical practice, where the heart appears dilating and shirnking in a sequence of snapshots. The investigation of this motion and its subtleties is essential for refining our understanding of cardiac function, and the appreciation of how and when this motion is no longer perfectly executed can lead us to understand functional impairments and provide insight into the unfolding of pathology. In the presence of congenital heart disease (CHD), cardiac mechanics are altered: from single ventricle physiology to conduction abnormalities to different cardiomyopathies, it is important to both capture and interpret biomechanical changes that occur in the presence of a congenital defect. This special issue in Frontiers in Pediatrics, now an e-book, focuses on 'Ventricular mechanics in congenital heart disease' and looks at current knowledge of phenomena such as systolic/diastolic dysfuction and current methods (chiefly in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography) to evaluate cardiac function in the presence of CHD, and then presents a series of original studies that employ both medical imaging and computational modelling techniques to study specific CHD scenarios.

In Vivo Imaging in Pharmacological Research

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452378 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-237-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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The discovery and development of a biological active molecule with therapeutic properties is an ever increasing complex task, highly unpredictable at the early stages and marked, in the end, by high rates of failure. As a consequence, the overall process leading to the production of a successful drug is very costly. The improvement of the net outcome in drug discovery and development would require, amongst other important factors, a good understanding of the molecular events that characterize the disease or pathology in order to better identify likely targets of interest, to optimize the interaction of an active agent (small molecule or macromolecule of natural or synthetic origin) with those targets, and to facilitate the study of the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicity of an active agent in suitable models and in human subjects. The objective of this Research Topic is to highlight new developments and applications of imaging techniques with the objective of performing pharmacological studies in vivo, in animal models and in humans. In the domain of drug discovery, the pharmacological and biomedical questions constitute the center of attention. In this sense, it is fundamental to keep in mind the strengths and limitations of each analytical or imaging technique. At the end, the judicious application of the technique with the aim of supporting the search for answers to manifold questions arising during a long and painstaking path provides a continuous role for imaging within the complex area of drug discovery and development.

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