Search results: Found 3

Listing 1 - 3 of 3
Sort by
Advances in Neuroimmunology

Author:
ISBN: 9783038425700 9783038425717 Year: Pages: X, 150 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-571-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-06 12:41:40
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Neuroimmunity is a relative new and rapidly expanding area of interest that critically impacts normal brain function and a wide range of neurological disorders. Neuroimmune mechanisms operate within the nervous system and between the nervous system and periphery. Glial cells of the nervous system play a primary role in neuroimmunity, through their ability to produce and respond to neuroimmune signaling factors, which serve a number of functions, such as homeostatic regulation of nervous system function and defense against insult and infection. Dysfunction of the neuroimmune system is now thought to be an important contributing factor to many disease and injury states.The purpose of this Special Issue is to provide a representative view of current research in this growing field, with an emphasis on the central nervous system.

The Major Discoveries of Cajal and His Disciples: Consolidated Milestones for the Neuroscience of the XXIst Century

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450664 Year: Pages: 161 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-066-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

When Santiago Ramón y Cajal started to unravel the fine structure of the nervous system in the last decades of the XIXth century maybe only his unbeatable soul of brave Spaniard imagined that most of the descriptions were scientific truths that lasted to date. Simple histological stainings, curiosity to ameliorate these, monocular microscopes, patience for drawing his observations and a rich imaginative open mind: this is the recipy for Cajal success. His descriptions of connectivity in the nervous system, compiled in Cajal's opus magna published in 1904 ("Textura del sistema nervioso del hombre y los vertebrados") and 1911 ("Histologie du systeme nerveux"), have been corroborated by modern techniques decade after decade. Even more, the main hypothesis that Cajal raised are universally recognised as biological laws, today: the neuron theory, the law on the dynamic polarization of the neuron and the chemotropic hypothesis. That is: the nervous system is not a sincitial network but is formed by individual cells; the transmission of the nerve impulses follow a main direction within a given neuron; the axons are guided by chemical substances in a chemotropic way, till form synapses with their targets. Attracted by Cajal's strong personality and scientific success, a number of medical students and doctors join him in the crusade to explore the nervous system. And the seed planted by the universal savant was really successful: Francisco Tello described interesting aspects of the regeneration of peripheral nerves which are very useful for neuroscientist currently working in this topic; Nicolás Achúcarro significantly contributed to study neuroglia and future microglia; Pío del Río-Hortega identified two out of the four main nervous cell types, the oligodendrocytes and microglia, and proposed an almost still valid classification for the CNS tumours; Fernando de Castro made was the first description of arterial chemoreceptors in the carotid body; Rafael Lorente de Nó was a dominant figure of Neuroscience for decades after the IInd World War, first describing the columnar organization of the cerebral cortex well before Mountcastle, Hubbel and Wiesel. Even less recognised co-workers and disciples of Cajal (his brother Pedro Ramón y Cajal, Domingo Sánchez, the neurologist Rodríguez-Lafora... protagonised discoveries that are consolidated scientific truths today). Altogether, it is difficult (if not impossible) to find a school in biology contributing in such a fundamental and variated way to the common acervo like the collectively known as Cajal School or Spanish Neurological School. Although the particular way to work of the Maestro, selecting a pleiade of brilliant collaborators with whom accomplish such a titanic feat, giving them freedom for their studies, has been recognised and confronted to antagonic systems followed by other relevant scientists and scientific schools, the general recognition of such a significant major milestones for Neuroscience and their vigency in the well-marched XXIst century is not: this is the purpose of this Ebook, to remind all these examples of how successful can be the scientific work when it is minutious, constant and performed by brilliant, imaginative and skilled scientists with a minimal conditions supporting their efforts.When Santiago Ramón y Cajal started to unravel the fine structure of the nervous system in the last decades of the XIXth century maybe only his unbeatable soul of brave Spaniard imagined that most of the descriptions were scientific truths that lasted to date. Simple histological stainings, curiosity to ameliorate these, monocular microscopes, patience for drawing his observations and a rich imaginative open mind: this is the recipy for Cajal success. His descriptions of connectivity in the nervous system, compiled in Cajal's opus magna published in 1904 ("Textura del sistema nervioso del hombre y los vertebrados") and 1911 ("Histologie du systeme nerveux"), have been corroborated by modern techniques decade after decade. Even more, the main hypothesis that Cajal raised are universally recognised as biological laws, today: the neuron theory, the law on the dynamic polarization of the neuron and the chemotropic hypothesis. That is: the nervous system is not a sincitial network but is formed by individual cells; the transmission of the nerve impulses follow a main direction within a given neuron; the axons are guided by chemical substances in a chemotropic way, till form synapses with their targets. Attracted by Cajal's strong personality and scientific success, a number of medical students and doctors join him in the crusade to explore the nervous system. And the seed planted by the universal savant was really successful: Francisco Tello described interesting aspects of the regeneration of peripheral nerves which are very useful for neuroscientist currently working in this topic; Nicolás Achúcarro significantly contributed to study neuroglia and future microglia; Pío del Río-Hortega identified two out of the four main nervous cell types, the oligodendrocytes and microglia, and proposed an almost still valid classification for the CNS tumours; Fernando de Castro made was the first description of arterial chemoreceptors in the carotid body; Rafael Lorente de Nó was a dominant figure of Neuroscience for decades after the IInd World War, first describing the columnar organization of the cerebral cortex well before Mountcastle, Hubbel and Wiesel. Even less recognised co-workers and disciples of Cajal (his brother Pedro Ramón y Cajal, Domingo Sánchez, the neurologist Rodríguez-Lafora... protagonised discoveries that are consolidated scientific truths today). Altogether, it is difficult (if not impossible) to find a school in biology contributing in such a fundamental and variated way to the common acervo like the collectively known as Cajal School or Spanish Neurological School. Although the particular way to work of the Maestro, selecting a pleiade of brilliant collaborators with whom accomplish such a titanic feat, giving them freedom for their studies, has been recognised and confronted to antagonic systems followed by other relevant scientists and scientific schools, the general recognition of such a significant major milestones for Neuroscience and their vigency in the well-marched XXIst century is not: this is the purpose of this Ebook, to remind all these examples of how successful can be the scientific work when it is minutious, constant and performed by brilliant, imaginative and skilled scientists with a minimal conditions supporting their efforts.

The Role of Mitochondria, Oxidative Stress and Altered Calcium Homeostasis in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: From Current Developments in the Laboratory to Clinical Treatments

Author:
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451463 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-146-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive, devastating and fatal disease characterized by selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons of the cerebral cortex, brainstem, spinal cord and muscle atrophy. In spite of many years of research, the pathogenesis of ALS is still not well understood. ALS is a multifaceted genetic disease, in which genetic susceptibility to motor neuron death interacts with environmental factors and there is still no cure for this deleterious disease. At present, there is only one FDA approved drug, Riluzole which according to past studies only modestly slows the progression of the disease, and improves survival by up to three months. The suffering of the ALS patients, and their families is enormous and the economic burden is colossal. There is therefore a pressing need for new therapies. Different molecular pathways and pathological mechanisms have been implicated in ALS. According to past studies, altered calcium homeostasis, abnormal mitochondrial function, protein misfolding, axonal transport defects, excessive production of extracellular superoxide radicals, glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, inflammatory events, and activation of oxidative stress pathways within the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum can act as major contributor that eventually leads to loss of connection between muscle and nerve ultimately resulting to ALS. However, the detailed molecular and cellular pathophysiological mechanisms and origin and temporal progression of the disease still remained elusive. Ongoing research and future advances will likely advance our improve understanding about various involved pathological mechanism ultimately leading to discoveries of new therapeutic cures. Importantly, clinical biomarkers of disease onset and progression are thus also urgently needed to support the development of the new therapeutic agents and novel preventive and curative strategies. Effective translation from pre-clinical to clinical studies will further require extensive knowledge regarding drug activity, bioavailability and efficacy in both the pre-clinical and clinical setting, and proof of biological activity in the target tissue. During the last decades, the development of new therapeutic molecules, advance neuroimaging tools, patient derived induced stem cells and new precision medicine approaches to study ALS has significantly improved our understanding of disease. In particular, new genetic tools, neuroimaging methods, cellular probes, biomarker study and molecular techniques that achieve high spatiotemporal resolution have revealed new details about the disease onset and its progression. In our effort to provide the interested reader, clinician and researchers a comprehensive summaries and new findings in this field of ALS research, hereby we have created this electronic book which comprises of twenty seven chapters having various reviews, perspective and original research articles. All these chapters and articles in this book not only summarize the cutting-edge techniques, approaches, cell and animal models to study ALS but also provide unprecedented coverage of the current developments and new hypothesis emerging in ALS research. Some examples are novel genetic and cell culture based models, mitochondria-mediated therapy, oxidative stress and ROS mechanism, development of stem cells and mechanism-based therapies as well as novel biomarkers for designing and testing effective therapeutic strategies that can benefit ALS patients who are at the earlier stages in the disease. I am extremely grateful to all the contributors to this book and want to thank them for their phenomenal efforts. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive, devastating and fatal disease characterized by selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons of the cerebral cortex, brainstem, spinal cord and muscle atrophy. In spite of many years of research, the pathogenesis of ALS is still not well understood. ALS is a multifaceted genetic disease, in which genetic susceptibility to motor neuron death interacts with environmental factors and there is still no cure for this deleterious disease. At present, there is only one FDA approved drug, Riluzole which according to past studies only modestly slows the progression of the disease, and improves survival by up to three months. The suffering of the ALS patients, and their families is enormous and the economic burden is colossal. There is therefore a pressing need for new therapies. Different molecular pathways and pathological mechanisms have been implicated in ALS. According to past studies, altered calcium homeostasis, abnormal mitochondrial function, protein misfolding, axonal transport defects, excessive production of extracellular superoxide radicals, glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, inflammatory events, and activation of oxidative stress pathways within the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum can act as major contributor that eventually leads to loss of connection between muscle and nerve ultimately resulting to ALS. However, the detailed molecular and cellular pathophysiological mechanisms and origin and temporal progression of the disease still remained elusive. Ongoing research and future advances will likely advance our improve understanding about various involved pathological mechanism ultimately leading to discoveries of new therapeutic cures. Importantly, clinical biomarkers of disease onset and progression are thus also urgently needed to support the development of the new therapeutic agents and novel preventive and curative strategies. Effective translation from pre-clinical to clinical studies will further require extensive knowledge regarding drug activity, bioavailability and efficacy in both the pre-clinical and clinical setting, and proof of biological activity in the target tissue. During the last decades, the development of new therapeutic molecules, advance neuroimaging tools, patient derived induced stem cells and new precision medicine approaches to study ALS has significantly improved our understanding of disease. In particular, new genetic tools, neuroimaging methods, cellular probes, biomarker study and molecular techniques that achieve high spatiotemporal resolution have revealed new details about the disease onset and its progression. In our effort to provide the interested reader, clinician and researchers a comprehensive summaries and new findings in this field of ALS research, hereby we have created this electronic book which comprises of twenty seven chapters having various reviews, perspective and original research articles. All these chapters and articles in this book not only summarize the cutting-edge techniques, approaches, cell and animal models to study ALS but also provide unprecedented coverage of the current developments and new hypothesis emerging in ALS research. Some examples are novel genetic and cell culture based models, mitochondria-mediated therapy, oxidative stress and ROS mechanism, development of stem cells and mechanism-based therapies as well as novel biomarkers for designing and testing effective therapeutic strategies that can benefit ALS patients who are at the earlier stages in the disease. I am extremely grateful to all the contributors to this book and want to thank them for their phenomenal efforts.

Listing 1 - 3 of 3
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA (2)

MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (1)


License

CC by (2)

CC by-nc-nd (1)


Language

english (3)


Year
From To Submit

2017 (3)