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Principles and Practice of Case-based Clinical Reasoning Education: A Method for Preclinical Students

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Book Series: Innovation and Change in Professional Education ISSN: 1572-1957 / 2542-9957 ISBN: 9783319648279 9783319648286 Year: Pages: 207 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-64828-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-24 17:20:23
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This volume describes and explains the educational method of Case-Based Clinical Reasoning (CBCR) used successfully in medical schools to prepare students to think like doctors before they enter the clinical arena and become engaged in patient care. Although this approach poses the paradoxical problem of a lack of clinical experience that is so essential for building proficiency in clinical reasoning, CBCR is built on the premise that solving clinical problems involves the ability to reason about disease processes. This requires knowledge of anatomy and the working and pathology of organ systems, as well as the ability to regard patient problems as patterns and compare them with instances of illness scripts of patients the clinician has seen in the past and stored in memory. CBCR stimulates the development of early, rudimentary illness scripts through elaboration and systematic discussion of the courses of action from the initial presentation of the patient to the final steps of clinical management.The book combines general backgrounds of clinical reasoning education and assessment with a detailed elaboration of the CBCR method for application in any medical curriculum, either as a mandatory or as an elective course. It consists of three parts: a general introduction to clinical reasoning education, application of the CBCR method, and cases that can used by educators to try out this method.

Global Carbon Pricing

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ISBN: 9780262340397 9780262036269 Year: Pages: 268 Language: English
Publisher: The MIT Press
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:41:31
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Why the traditional “pledge and review” climate agreements have failed, and how carbon pricing, based on trust and reciprocity, could succeed.After twenty-five years of failure, climate negotiations continue to use a “pledge and review” approach: countries pledge (almost anything), subject to (unenforced) review. This approach ignores everything we know about human cooperation. In this book, leading economists describe an alternate model for climate agreements, drawing on the work of the late Nobel laureate Elinor Ostrom and others. They show that a “common commitment” scheme is more effective than an “individual commitment” scheme; the latter depends on altruism while the former involves reciprocity (“we will if you will”).The contributors propose that global carbon pricing is the best candidate for a reciprocal common commitment in climate negotiations. Each country would commit to placing charges on carbon emissions sufficient to match an agreed global price formula. The contributors show that carbon pricing would facilitate negotiations and enforcement, improve efficiency and flexibility, and make other climate policies more effective. Additionally, they analyze the failings of the 2015 Paris climate conference.ContributorsRichard N. Cooper, Peter Cramton, Ottmar Edenhofer, Christian Gollier, Éloi Laurent, David JC MacKay, William Nordhaus, Axel Ockenfels, Joseph E. Stiglitz, Steven Stoft, Jean Tirole, Martin L. Weitzman

Lie and non-Lie Symmetries: Theory and Applications for Solving Nonlinear Models

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ISBN: 9783038425267 9783038425274 Year: Pages: XII, 414 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-25 13:19:05
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Since the end of the 19th century when the prominent Norwegian mathematician Sophus Lie created the theory of Lie algebras and Lie groups and developed the method of their applications for solving differential equations, his theory and method have continuously been the research focus of many well-known mathematicians and physicists. This book is devoted to recent development in Lie theory and its applications for solving physically and biologically motivated equations and models. The book contains the articles published in two Special Issue of the journal Symmetry, which are devoted to analysis and classification of Lie algebras, which are invariance algebras of real-word models; Lie and conditional symmetry classification problems of nonlinear PDEs; the application of symmetry-based methods for finding new exact solutions of nonlinear PDEs (especially reaction-diffusion equations) arising in applications; the application of the Lie method for solving nonlinear initial and boundary-value problems (especially those for modelling processes with diffusion, heat transfer, and chemotaxis).

The Philosophical Salon: Speculations, Reflections, Interventions

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Book Series: Critical Climate Change ISBN: 9781785420382 9781785420399 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_622812 Language: English
Publisher: Open Humanities Press
Subject: Political Science --- Philosophy --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-26 11:01:15
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Through the interpretative lens of today’s leading thinkers, The Philosophical Salon illuminates the persistent intellectual queries and the most disquieting concerns of our actuality. Across its three main divisions—Speculations, Reflections, and Interventions—the volume constructs a complex mirror, in which our age might be able to recognize itself with all its imperfections, shadowy spots, even threatening abysses and latent promises. On the cutting edge of philosophy, political and literary theory, and aesthetics, this book courageously tackles a wide array of topics, including climate change, the role of technology, reproductive rights, the problem of refugees, the task of the university, political extremism, embodiment, utopia, food ethics, and sexual identity. It is an enduring record of an ongoing conversation, as well as a building block for any attempt to make sense of our world’s multifaceted realities. Contributors: Robert Albritton, Linda Martín Alcoff, Claudia Baracchi, Geoffrey Bennington, Jay M. Bernstein, Costica Bradatan, Jill Casid, David Castillo, Antonio Cerella, Anna Charlton, Claire Colebrook, Sarah Conly, Nikita Dhawan, William Egginton, Roberto Esposito, Mihail Evans, Gary Francione, Luis Garagalza, Michael Gillespie, Michael Hauskeller, Ágnes Heller, Daniel Innerarity, Jacob Kiernan, Julia Kristeva, Daniel Kunitz, Susanna Lindberg, Jeff Love, Michael Marder, Todd May, Michael Meng, John Milbank, Warren Montag, T. M. Murray, Jean-Luc Nancy, Kelly Oliver, Adrian Pabst, Martha Patterson, Richard Polt, Gabriel Rockhill, Hasana Sharp, Doris Sommer, Gayatri Spivak, Kara Thompson, Patrícia Vieira, Slavoj Žižek.

One Hundred Years of Chemical Warfare: Research, Deployment, Consequences

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783319516639 9783319516646 Year: Pages: 408 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51664-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-29 14:31:06
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On April 22, 1915, the German military released 150 tons of chlorine gas at Ypres, Belgium. Carried by a long-awaited wind, the chlorine cloud passed within a few minutes through the British and French trenches, leaving behind at least 1,000 dead and 4,000 injured. This chemical attack, which amounted to the first use of a weapon of mass destruction, marks a turning point in world history. The preparation as well as the execution of the gas attack was orchestrated by Fritz Haber, the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry in Berlin-Dahlem. During World War I, Haber transformed his research institute into a center for the development of chemical weapons (and of the means of protection against them).Bretislav Friedrich and Martin Wolf (Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, the successor institution of Haber’s institute) together with Dieter Hoffmann, Jürgen Renn, and Florian Schmaltz (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science) organized an international symposium to commemorate the centenary of the infamous chemical attack. The symposium examined crucial facets of chemical warfare from the first research on and deployment of chemical weapons in WWI to the development and use of chemical warfare during the century hence. The focus was on scientific, ethical, legal, and political issues of chemical weapons research and deployment — including the issue of dual use — as well as the ongoing effort to control the possession of chemical weapons and to ultimately achieve their elimination.The volume consists of papers presented at the symposium and supplemented by additional articles that together cover key aspects of chemical warfare from 22 April 1915 until the summer of 2015.

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