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Infants’ Understanding and Production of Goal-Directed Actions in the Context of Social and Object-Related Interactions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452552 Year: Pages: 121 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-255-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Since the discovery of mirror neurons, the study of human infant goal-directed actions and object manipulation has burgeoned into new and exciting research directions. A number of infant studies have begun emphasizing the social context of action to understand what infants can infer when looking at others performing goal-directed actions or manipulating objects. Others have begun addressing how looking at actions in a social context, or even simply looking at objects in the immediate environment influence the way infants learn to direct their own actions on objects. Researchers have even begun investigating what aspects of goal-directed actions and object manipulation infants imitate when such actions are being modeled by a social partner, or they have been asking which cues infants use to predict others' actions. A growing understanding of how infants learn to reach, perceive information for reaching, and attend social cues for action has become central to many recent studies. These new lines of investigation and others have benefited from the use of a broad range of new investigative techniques. Eye-tracking, brains imaging techniques and new methodologies have been used to scrutinize how infants look, process, and use information to act themselves on objects and/or the social world, and to infer, predict, and recognize goal-directed actions outcomes from others. This Frontiers Research topic brings together empirical reports, literature reviews, and theory and hypothesis papers that tap into some of these exciting developmental questions about how infants perceive, understand, and perform goal-directed actions broadly defined. The papers included either stress the neural, motor, or perceptual aspects of infants’ behavior, or any combination of those dimensions as related to the development of early cognitive understanding and performance of goal-directed actions.

Understanding the Role of Time-Dimension in the Brain Information Processing

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451494 Year: Pages: 135 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-149-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Optimized interaction of the brain with environment requires the four-dimensional representation of space-time in the neuronal circuits. Information processing is an important part of this interaction, which is critically dependent on time-dimension. Information processing has played an important role in the evolution of mammals, and has reached a level of critical importance in the lives of primates, particularly the humans. The entanglement of time-dimension with information processing in the brain is not clearly understood at present. Time-dimension in physical world – the environment of an organism – can be represented by the interval of a pendulum swing (the cover page depicts temporal unit with the help of a swinging pendulum). Temporal units in neural processes are represented by regular activities of pacemaker neurons, tonic regular activities of proprioceptors and periodic fluctuations in the excitability of neurons underlying brain oscillations. Moreover, temporal units may be representationally associated with time-bins containing bits of information (see the Editorial), which may be studied to understand the entanglement of time-dimension with neural information processing. The optimized interaction of the brain with environment requires the calibration of neural temporal units. Neural temporal units are calibrated as a result of feedback processes occurring during the interaction of an organism with environment. Understanding the role of time-dimension in the brain information processing requires a multidisciplinary approach, which would include psychophysics, single cell studies and brain recordings. Although this Special Issue has helped us move forward on some fronts, including theoretical understanding of calibration of time-information in neural circuits, and the role of brain oscillations in timing functions and integration of asynchronous sensory information, further advancements are needed by developing correct computational tools to resolve the relationship between dynamic, hierarchical neural oscillatory structures that form during the brain’s interaction with environment.

Ecology of Affect: Intensive Milieus and Contingent Encounters

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ISBN: 9783957960955 9783957960962 Year: Pages: 70 DOI: 10.14619/020 Language: English
Publisher: meson press
Subject: Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-27 16:46:58
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The way we conceive the human today is particularly affected by the shifts in media technology during the 20th century. Affect emerges as the new liminal concept that renders the body compatible in novel ways with the technology and politics of media. By ways of a relational reorganization the organic end technological life is condensed in a new, intense way to an ecology of affects.

Adaptive Hot Cognition: How Emotion Drives Information Processing and Cognition Steers Affective Processing

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451654 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-165-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Influential theories have argued that affective processing is fundamentally different from cognitive processing. Others have suggested that theoretical boundaries between affective and cognitive processing are artificial and inherently problematic. Over recent years, different positions on these issues have fueled many empirical studies investigating the mechanisms underlying cognitive and affective processing. Where and on what basis should we draw the line between cognition and emotion? Are there fundamental distinctions to be made between the way emotion influences cognition and cognition influences emotion? How does the reciprocal interaction between emotion and cognition lead to adaptive behavior? This Research Topic explores the nature of the reciprocal interaction between emotion and cognition from a functional perspective.

The Economy as a Complex Spatial System: Macro, Meso and Micro Perspectives

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Springer Proceedings in Complexity ISSN: 2213-8684 / 2213-8692 ISBN: 9783319656267 9783319656274 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-65627-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-24 16:21:26
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This collected volume represents the final outcome of the COST Action IS1104 “The EU in the new complex geography of economic systems: models, tools and policy evaluation”.Visualizing the EU as a complex and multi-layered network, the book is organized in three parts, each of them dealing with a different level of analysis: At the macro-level, Part I considers the interactions within large economic systems (regions or countries) involving trade, workers migration, and other factor movements. At the meso-level, Part II discusses interactions within specific but wide-ranging markets, with a focus on financial markets and banking systems. Lastly, at the micro-level, Part III explores the decision-making of single firms, especially in the context of location decisions.

Sound, Music and Movement in Parkinson's Disease

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450794 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-079-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology --- Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Recent years have brought new insights to the understanding of Parkinson’s disease, impact of exercise and sound displays in rehabilitation and movement facilitation. There is growing evidence that auditory signals in the environment can provide a temporal template for movement and change the mode of motor control from intrinsic to extrinsic; habitual to goal-directed, enabling enhanced motor performance in patients. In addition, forced exercise rate studies show that exercising at the pace of healthy adults can have potential neuroprotective benefits for patients. Many research groups have explored the use of auditory cues (such as rhythmical auditory training) in improving gait and upper limb movement parameters. Cues are usually either intermittent (metronome) or continuous (dynamic sound displays). Similarly, dance based interventions suggest that patients benefit from additional sensory information (i.e. the temporal structure embedded in music and proprioceptive information from a dancing partner) that facilities movement. On the contrary, studies dedicated to auditory perception and motor timing report an impaired ability of patients to perceive and synchronise with complex rhythmical structures (i.e. causing an inability to play musical instruments). With the growth of modern technology and the increasing portability of hi-specification devices (such as smart phones), new research questions on the design of interventions are beginning to emerge as we strive for more efficient therapeutic approaches. In this Research Topic we wanted to bring together top scientists from the movement disorder, motor control and sound related studies along with therapists. That way, we can engage in cross-disciplinary and challenging scientific debate about future rehabilitation avenues and frontiers for Parkinson’s disease patients.

Climate Change and Natural Disasters

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ISBN: 9781138567351 9781412864404 9781315081045 Year: Pages: 158 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:25
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The start of the new millennium will be remembered for deadly climate-related disasters - the great floods in Thailand in 2011, Super Storm Sandy in the United States in 2012, and Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines in 2013, to name a few. In 2014, 17.5 million people were displaced by climate-related disasters, ten times more than the 1.7 million displaced by geophysical hazards. What is causing the increase in natural disasters and what effect does it have on the economy? Climate Change and Natural Disasters sends three messages: human-made factors exert a growing influence on climate-related disasters; because of the link to anthropogenic factors, there is a pressing need for climate mitigation; and prevention, including climate adaptation, ought not to be viewed as a cost to economic growth but as an investment. Ultimately, attention to climate-related disasters, arguably the most tangible manifestation of global warming, may help mobilize broader climate action. It can also be instrumental in transitioning to a path of low-carbon, green growth, improving disaster resilience, improving natural resource use, and caring for the urban environment. Vinod Thomas proposes that economic growth will become sustainable only if governments, political actors, and local communities combine natural disaster prevention and controlling climate change into national growth strategies. When considering all types of capital, particularly human capital, climate action can drive economic growth, rather than hinder it.

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