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Spark-Plasma Sintering and Related Field-Assisted Powder Consolidation Technologies

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ISBN: 9783038423836 9783038423829 Year: Pages: Pages: VII, 187 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-383-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-27 09:40:06
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Electromagnetic field-assisted sintering techniques have increasingly attracted attention of scientists and technologists. Spark-plasma sintering (SPS) and other field-assisted powder consolidation approaches provide remarkable capabilities to the processing of materials into configurations previously unattainable. Of particular significance is the possibility of using very fast heating rates, which, coupled with the field-assisted mass transport, stand behind the purported ability to achieve high densities during consolidation and to maintain the nanostructure of consolidated materials via these techniques. Potentially, SPS and related technologies have many significant advantages over the conventional powder processing methods, including the lower process temperature, the shorter holding time, dramatically improved properties of sintered products, low manufacturing costs, and environmental friendliness.

Online and Offline Modulators of Motor Learning

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451661 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-166-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Both the acquisition of new and the modification of previously acquired motor skills are necessary to achieve optimal levels of motor performance in everyday functioning as well as to attain expert performance levels that are evident in sports and arts. A multitude of factors have been shown to influence the various stages of the learning process, from the acquisition (i.e., motor memory encoding) to the consolidation and subsequent retention of a skill. These factors, or modulators, can affect learning through online processes taking place during practice of a new motor skill or through offline processes occurring in the absence of task performance (i.e., after training sessions). Although much of the recent research from various disciplines has placed an increased emphasis on identifying factors that can influence the motor learning process, we lack an integrated understanding of online and offline determinants of motor skill behaviours. Potential motor learning modulators include, but are certainly not limited to, stress, anxiety, attention, executive functioning, social interaction, stimulus-response mapping, training schedule/regimen, learning environment, vigilance/consciousness states including sleep, wakefulness or meditation, brain stimulation, interference as well as resting state brain connectivity. Pathological and non-pathological (i.e., development or aging) changes in the brain can also be conceptualized as potential modulators. The aim of this Research Topic is to bridge research from the cognitive, sensory, motor and psychological domains using various behavioural paradigms and neuroimaging techniques in order to provide a comprehensive view of the online and offline modulators of motor learning, and how they interact to influence motor performance. Critically, the overarching goal is to gain a better understanding of how motor behaviour can be optimized. We believe that merging research from diverse neuroscientific communities would contribute to fulfilling this goal and potentially highlight possible shared neurophysiological mechanisms influencing motor learning.

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