Search results: Found 4

Listing 1 - 4 of 4
Sort by
HLA-G-mediated Immune Tolerance: Past and New Outlooks

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451197 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-119-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The non-classical HLA class I molecule HLA-G is different from classical HLA class I molecules because of the low polymorphism in the coding region, the fact that HLA-G primary transcript is alternatively spliced in seven isoforms, and the inhibitory action on immune cells. Although HLA-G is low polymorphic, variants in both promoter and 3’ un-translated region (UTR) of HLA-G locus regulate its expression. In healthy conditions, a basal level of HLA-G gene transcription is observed in most cells and tissues; however, translation into HLA-G protein is restricted to trophoblasts in the placenta, where it participates in promoting tolerance at the fetal-maternal interface. HLA-G is also expressed by thymic epitelial, cornea, mesenchymal stem cells, nail matrix, pancreatic beta cells, erythroid, and endothelial precursors. HLA-G can be neo-expressed in adult tissues in pathological conditions, and its expression has been documented autoimmune disorders, viral infections, and cancer. In the latter setting de novo HLA-G expression is associated with the capability of tumor cells to evade the immune control. In the last decade it has become evident that HLA-G expression on T cells and antigenpresenting cells confers to these cells tolerogenic properties. This Research Topic focused on i) summarizing updated clinical and immunological evidences that HLA-G expression is associate with beneficial or detrimental tolerance, ii) gathering new insights into the mechanisms governing the expression of HLA-G in healthy and pathological conditions, such as pre-eclampsia, and iii) examining the mechanisms underlying HLA-G mediated tolerance.

Understanding Crohn's Disease: Immunity, Genes and Microbes

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452149 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-214-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory bowel disease resulting in considerable morbidity and reduced quality of life. Although still under intense debate, CD seems to result from an enhanced and uncontrolled immune response to the gut microbiota. CD is thought to be multifactorial depending on genetic and environmental determinants. In recent years, nearly 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with increased risk of developing CD (some of the SNPs also associated with susceptibility to ulcerative colitis, another type of IBD). These SNPs are mostly located in genes involved in innate and adaptive immunity mechanisms, such as autophagy, expression of pattern-recognition receptors and citokine signaling. Epigenetics is also probably playing a role in CD susceptibility, as it is sensitive to environmental conditions and may mediate gene-environment interactions. Environmental factors possibly involved in CD development include diet, gut microbiota composition and infection with specific pathogens, of which the most consistently associated to CD are Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and adherent-invasive Escherichia coli. This Topic aimed at bringing together contributions covering different genetic, epigenetic, immunological and microbial processes involved in the development of CD, helping to drive forward the understanding of CD immunopahtology.

Bioactive Compounds from Microbes

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451852 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-185-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Microorganisms have had a long and surprising history. They were “invisible” until invention of microscope in the 17th century. Until that date, although they were extensively (but inconsciously) employed in food preservation, beer and wine fermentation, cheese, vinegar, yogurt and bread making, as well as being the causative agents of infectious diseases, they were considered as “not-existing”. The work of Pasteur in the middle of the 19th century revealed several biological activities performed by microorganisms including fermentations and pathogenicity. Due to the urgent issue to treat infectious diseases (the main cause of death at those times) the “positive potential” of the microbial world has been neglected for about one century. Once the fight against the “evil” strains was fulfilled also thanks to the antibiotics, industry began to appreciate bacteria’s beneficial characteristics and exploit selected strains as starters for both food fermentations and aroma, enzyme and texturing agent production. However, it was only at the end of the 20th century that the probiotic potential of some bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria was fully recognized. Very recently, apart from the probiotic activity of in toto bacteria, attention has begun to be directed to the chemical mediators of the probiotic effect. Thanks also to the improvement of techniques such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, several bioactive compounds are continuously being discovered. Bioactive molecules produced by bacteria, yeasts and virus-infected cells proved to be important for improving or impairing human health. The most important result of last years’ research concerns the discovery that a very complex network of signals allows communication between organisms (from intra-species interactions to inter-kingdom signaling). Based on these findings a completely new approach has arisen: the system biology standpoind. Actually, the different organisms colonizing a certain environmental niche are not merely interacting with each other as individuals but should be considered as a whole complex ecosystem continuously exchanging information at the molecular level. In this context, this topic issue explores both antagonistic compounds (i.e. antibiotics) and “multiple function” cooperative molecules improving the physiological status of both stimulators and targets of this network. From the applicative viewpoint, these molecules could be hopefully exploited to develop new pharmaceuticals and/or nutraceuticals for improving human health.

Modellbasierte Identifikation fraktionaler Systeme und ihre Anwendung auf die Lithium-Ionen-Zelle

Author:
Book Series: Karlsruher Beiträge zur Regelungs- und Steuerungstechnik / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Regelungs- und Steuerungssysteme ISSN: 25116312 ISBN: 9783731506904 Year: Volume: 3 Pages: XXXIV, 210 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000071542 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

In this work, model-based methods for the online identification of physically motivated aging parameters of battery cells are presented and applied to lithium-ion-cells. The new methods are based on fractional impedance models and, in contrast to the state of the art, are late-lumping approaches. A further contribution of this work is the extension of the theory of time-variant fractional systems by a controllability analysis and an energy-optimized control.

Listing 1 - 4 of 4
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA (3)

KIT Scientific Publishing (1)


License

CC by (3)

CC by-sa (1)


Language

english (3)

german (1)


Year
From To Submit

2017 (4)

-->