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Photon-Counting Image Sensors

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783038423751 9783038423744 Year: Pages: XII, 366 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-19 08:18:39
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Photon-counting image sensors represent a possible paradigm shift in solid-state image sensors. In these devices, photons are individually sensed and counted. To count photons, the devices must have high quantum efficiency, deep sub-electron read noise and the ability to read-out in digital form at high speed. This all-invited content from the top image sensor researchers around the world, reviews the state of the art of photon-counting image sensors in a variety of configurations, including CMOS image sensors and devices using avalanche multiplication, and for visible photons as well as higher energy photons such as ultraviolet and x-rays. New methods of creating image information from photon-counting image sensors is also described. This new emerging technology will have applications in low-light scientific imaging for aerospace and defense, and in the life sciences. It may also have applications in cryptography, communications, security cameras, 3D imaging and photography.

In Vivo Imaging in Pharmacological Research

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452378 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-237-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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The discovery and development of a biological active molecule with therapeutic properties is an ever increasing complex task, highly unpredictable at the early stages and marked, in the end, by high rates of failure. As a consequence, the overall process leading to the production of a successful drug is very costly. The improvement of the net outcome in drug discovery and development would require, amongst other important factors, a good understanding of the molecular events that characterize the disease or pathology in order to better identify likely targets of interest, to optimize the interaction of an active agent (small molecule or macromolecule of natural or synthetic origin) with those targets, and to facilitate the study of the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicity of an active agent in suitable models and in human subjects. The objective of this Research Topic is to highlight new developments and applications of imaging techniques with the objective of performing pharmacological studies in vivo, in animal models and in humans. In the domain of drug discovery, the pharmacological and biomedical questions constitute the center of attention. In this sense, it is fundamental to keep in mind the strengths and limitations of each analytical or imaging technique. At the end, the judicious application of the technique with the aim of supporting the search for answers to manifold questions arising during a long and painstaking path provides a continuous role for imaging within the complex area of drug discovery and development.

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