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The Politics of Evidence

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Book Series: Routledge Studies in Governance and Public Policy Learn ISBN: 9781138939400 9781315675008 Year: Pages: 182 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 282118
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-14 11:02:30
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There has been an enormous increase in interest in the use of evidence for public policymaking, but the vast majority of work on the subject has failed to engage with the political nature of decision making and how this influences the ways in which evidence will be used (or misused) within political areas. This book provides new insights into the nature of political bias with regards to evidence and critically considers what an ‘improved’ use of evidence would look like from a policymaking perspective. Part I describes the great potential for evidence to help achieve social goals, as well as the challenges raised by the political nature of policymaking. It explores the concern of evidence advocates that political interests drive the misuse or manipulation of evidence, as well as counter-concerns of critical policy scholars about how appeals to ‘evidence-based policy’ can depoliticise political debates. Both concerns reflect forms of bias – the first representing technical bias, whereby evidence use violates principles of scientific best practice, and the second representing issue bias in how appeals to evidence can shift political debates to particular questions or marginalise policy-relevant social concerns.&#xD;&#xD;Part II then draws on the fields of policy studies and cognitive psychology to understand the origins and mechanisms of both forms of bias in relation to political interests and values. It illustrates how such biases are not only common, but can be much more predictable once we recognise their origins and manifestations in policy arenas.&#xD;&#xD;Finally, Part III discusses ways to move forward for those seeking to improve the use of evidence in public policymaking. It explores what constitutes ‘good evidence for policy’, as well as the ‘good use of evidence’ within policy processes, and considers how to build evidence-advisory institutions that embed key principles of both scientific good practice and democratic representation. Taken as a whole, the approach promoted is termed the ‘good governance of evidence’ – a concept that represents the use of rigorous, systematic and technically valid pieces of evidence within decision-making processes that are representative of, and accountable to, populations served.

Kastom, property and ideology: Land transformations in Melanesia

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781760461058 Year: DOI: 10.22459/KPI.03.2017 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Political Science --- Social Sciences --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-04 11:01:49
License: ANU Press

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The relationship between customary land tenure and ‘modern’ forms of landed property has been a major political issue in the ‘Spearhead’ states of Melanesia since the late colonial period, and is even more pressing today, as the region is subject to its own version of what is described in the international literature as a new ‘land rush’ or ‘land grab’ in developing countries. This volume aims to test the application of one particular theoretical framework to the Melanesian version of this phenomenon, which is the framework put forward by Derek Hall, Philip Hirsch and Tania Murray Li in their 2011 book, Powers of Exclusion: Land Dilemmas in Southeast Asia. Since that framework emerged from studies of the agrarian transition in Southeast Asia, the key question addressed in this volume is whether ‘land transformations’ in Melanesia are proceeding in a similar direction, or whether they take a somewhat different form because of the particular nature of Melanesian political economies or social institutions. The contributors to this volume all deal with this question from the point of view of their own direct engagement with different aspects of the land policy process in particular countries. Aside from discussion of the agrarian transition in Melanesia, particular attention is also paid to the growing problem of land access in urban areas and the gendered nature of landed property relations in this region.

Keywords

land policy --- land tenure --- melanesia

Digital Kenya: An Entrepreneurial Revolution in the Making

Authors: ---
Book Series: Palgrave Studies of Entrepreneurship in Africa ISBN: 9781137578808 9781137578785 Year: Pages: 509 DOI: 10.1057/978-1-137-57878-5 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Political Science --- Sociology --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-10 17:11:32
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Presenting rigorous and original research, this volume offers key insights into the historical, cultural, social, economic and political forces at play in the creation of world-class ICT innovations in Kenya. Following the arrival of fiber-optic cables in 2009, Digital Kenya examines why the initial entrepreneurial spirit and digital revolution has begun to falter despite support from motivated entrepreneurs, international investors, policy experts and others. Written by engaged scholars and professionals in the field, the book offers 15 eye-opening chapters and 14 one-on-one conversations with entrepreneurs and investors to ask why establishing ICT start-ups on a continental and global scale remains a challenge on the “Silicon Savannah”. The authors present evidence-based recommendations to help Kenya to continue producing globally impactful ICT innovations that improve the lives of those still waiting on the side-lines, and to inspire other nations to do the same.

The Ethics of Educational Healthcare Placements in Low and Middle Income Countries: First Do No Harm?

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ISBN: 9783319483627 9783319483634 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-48363-4 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Political Science --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-11 13:02:49
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This book examines the current state of elective placements of medical undergraduate students in developing countries and their impact on health care education at home. Drawing from a recent case study of volunteer deployment in Uganda, the authors provide an in-depth evaluation of the impacts on the students themselves and the learning outcomes associated with placements in low resource settings, as well as the impacts that these forms of student mobility have on the host settings. In addition to reviewing the existing literature on elective placements, the authors outline a potential model for the future development of ethical elective placements. As the book concurs with an increasing international demand for elective placements, it will be of immediate interest to universities, intermediary organizations, students as consumers, and hosting organisations in low-resource settings.

Keywords

education --- policy --- poverty --- aid --- development --- Africa

Aquaculture Perspective of Multi-Use Sites in the Open Ocean: The Untapped Potential for Marine Resources in the Anthropocene

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783319511573 9783319511597 Year: Pages: 404 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-51159-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Hydraulic Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-26 17:01:20
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This volume addresses the potential for combining large-scale marine aquaculture of macroalgae, molluscs, crustaceans, and finfish, with offshore structures, primarily those associated with energy production, such as wind turbines and oil-drilling platforms. The volume offers a comprehensive overview and includes chapters on policy, science, engineering, and economic aspects to make this concept a reality. The compilation of chapters authored by internationally recognized researchers across the globe addresses the theoretical and practical aspects of multi-use, and presents case studies of research, development, and demonstration-scale installations in the US and EU.

Competition Law and Economic Regulation

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9781776140909 9781776140916 978776142002 Year: Pages: 320 Language: English
Publisher: Wits University Press
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-30 11:01:04
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Shaping markets through competition and economic regulation is at the heart of addressing the development challenges facing countries in southern Africa. The contributors to 'Competition Law And Economic Regulation: Addressing Market Power In Southern Africa' critically assess the efficacy of the competition and economic regulation frameworks, including the impact of a number of the regional competition authorities in a range of sectors throughout southern Africa. Featuring academics as well as practitioners in the field, the book addresses issues common to southern African countries, where markets are small and concentrated, with particularly high barriers to entry, and where the resources to enforce legislation against anti-competitive conduct are limited. What is needed, the contributors argue, is an understanding of competition and regional integration as part of an inclusive growth agenda for Africa. By examining competition and regulation in a single framework, and viewing this within the southern African experience, this volume adds new perspectives to the global competition literature. It is an essential reference tool and will be of great interest to policymakers and regulators, as well as the rapidly growing ecosystem of legal practitioners and economists engaged in the field.

Satellite Earth Observations and Their Impact on Society and Policy

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789811037122 9789811037139 Year: Pages: 221 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-3713-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-24 15:48:14
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The result of a workshop bringing together an international advisory board of experts in science, satellite technologies, industry innovations, and public policy, this book addresses the current and future roles of satellite Earth observations in solving large-scale environmental problems. The book showcases the results of engaging distinct communities to enhance our ability to identify emerging problems and to administer international regimes created to solve them. It also reviews the work of the Policy and Earth Observation Innovation Cycle (PEOIC) project, an effort aimed at assessing the impact of satellite observations on environmental policy and to propose a mission going forward that would launch an “innovation cycle”. The achievements of such a mission would feed back to innovations in next-generation observation technology, thus contributing to global policy demand for policy-relevant information.

A Long Way to Go

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781760461775 Year: DOI: 10.22459/LWG.12.2017 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: History --- Migration
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-16 11:01:51
License: ANU Press

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"A Long Way to Go: Irregular Migration Patterns, Processes, Drivers and Decision-making presents the findings of a unique migration research program harnessing work of some of the leading international and Australian migration researchers on the challenging and complex topic of irregular maritime migration. The book brings together selected findings of the research program, and in doing so it contributes to the ongoing academic and policy discourses by providing findings from rigorous quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research to support a better understanding of the dynamics of irregular migration and their potential policy implications. Stemming from the 2012 Expert Panel on Asylum Seekers report, the Irregular Migration Research Program commissioned 26 international research projects involving 17 academic principal researchers, along with private sector specialist researchers, international organisations and policy think tanks. The centrepiece of the research program was a multi-year collaborative partnership between the Department of Immigration and Border Protection and The Australian National University’s Crawford School of Public Policy. Under this partnership, empirical research on international irregular migration was commissioned from migration researchers in Australia, Indonesia, Iran, the Netherlands, Sri Lanka and Switzerland.&#xD;"

The Practice of Industrial Policy: Government—Business Coordination in Africa and East Asia

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9780198796954 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198796954.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: WIDER Studies in Development Economics
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-27 11:01:30
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Much of the information relevant to policy formulation for industrial development is held by the private sector, not by public officials. There is, therefore, fairly broad agreement in the development literature that some form of structured engagement—often referred to as close or strategic coordination—between the public and private sectors is needed, to assist in the design of appropriate policies and provide feedback on their implementation. There is less agreement on how that engagement should be structured, how its objectives be defined, and how success be measured. In fact, the academic literature provides little practical guidance on how governments interested in developing such a framework should go about doing it. The burden of this lack of guidance falls most heavily on Africa, where—despite twenty years of growth—lack of structural transformation has slowed job creation and the pace of poverty reduction. In 2014, the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) and United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER) launched a joint research project: The Practice of Industrial Policy. The aim is to help African policy makers develop better coordination between public and private sectors in order to identify the constraints to faster structural transformation and design, implement, and monitor policies to remove them. This book, written by national researchers and international experts, presents the results of that research by combining a set of analytical ‘framing’ essays on close coordination with case studies of successful and unsuccessful efforts at close coordination in Africa and in comparator countries.

Danish Reactions to German Occupation

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ISBN: 9781911307495 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.14324/111.9781911307495 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-08 11:01:19
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For five years during World War II, Denmark was occupied by Germany. While the Danish reaction to this period of its history has been extensively discussed in Danish-language publications, it has not until now received a thorough treatment in English. Set in the context of modern Danish foreign relations, and tracing the country’s responses to successive crises and wars in the region, Danish Reactions to German Occupation brings a full overview of the occupation to an English-speaking audience. Holbraad carefully dissects the motivations and ideologies driving conduct during the occupation, and his authoritative coverage of the preceding century provides a crucial link to understanding the forces behind Danish foreign policy divisions. Analysing the conduct of a traumatised and strategically exposed small state bordering on an aggressive great power, the book traces a development from reluctant cooperation to active resistance. In doing so, Holbraad surveys and examines the subsequent, and not yet quite finished, debate among Danish historians about this contested period, which takes place between those siding with the resistance and those more inclined to justify limited cooperation with the occupiers – and who sometimes even condone various acts of collaboration

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