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Definitionen und Anerkennung substaatlicher Gruppen im Völkerrecht - Eine Untersuchung der rechtlichen Anwendung völkerrechtlicher Konstruktionen substaatlicher kollektiver Identitäten und aktueller Entwicklungen im Intergovernmental Committe der WIPO

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ISBN: 9783863952693 Year: DOI: 10.17875/gup2017-1014 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-19 11:01:33
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Minorities, indigenous peoples and local communities have their own status in public international law. Given their position within the politics of a societal majority, they require a certain protection and enjoy particular group rights. However, it is unclear how to legally determine such culturally distinct sub-state groups. Who is entitled to the international legal guarantees of minority protection, who holds the right to self-determination and who owns traditional knowledge? Up until now the politically motivated debates in research and practice circled unsuccessfully around different approaches of definitions and criteria of cultural difference. This thesis shows that it is the recognition as a ‘minority’, ‘indigenous people’ or ‘local community’, which becomes the constitutive act for the legal status of a group. In contrast to the politically driven debates about the scope of definitions, the perspective of recognition, as presented in this book, makes the relevant processes and institutions visible. The recognition of sub-state groups can be contextualized in public international law in relation to the principles of the recognition of states, while also being anchored by an interdisciplinary approach. The perspective of recognition replaces the discussion about general criterial definitions and allows an identification of the power imbalances and conflicts of interests, which are inherent to the question of the legal status of culturally distinct sub-state groups.

Begriffliche Situationsanalyse aus Videodaten bei unvollständiger und fehlerhafter Information

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Book Series: Karlsruher Schriften zur Anthropomatik / Lehrstuhl für Interaktive Echtzeitsysteme, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ; Fraunhofer-Inst. für Optronik, Systemtechnik und Bildauswertung IOSB Karlsruhe ISSN: 18636489 ISBN: 9783731506447 Year: Volume: 32 Pages: XVII, 241 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000066975 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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This work addresses the automatic detection of complex situations in image sequences in the video surveillance context. There are difficulties when dealing with data from natural environments. This work expands the formalism of FMTHL and SGTs to deal with erroneous, missing, and noisy data and complexity, demonstrates the robustness of situational recognition in natural scenarios, and expands generic applicability beyond discourse boundaries.

Phonology in the Bilingual and Bidialectal Lexicon

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452101 Year: Pages: 185 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-210-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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A conversation between two people can only take place if the words intended by each speaker are successfully recognized. Spoken word recognition is at the heart of language comprehension. This automatic and smooth process remains a challenge for models of spoken word recognition. Both the process of mapping the speech signal onto stored representations for words, and the format of the representation themselves are subject to debate. So far, existing research on the nature of spoken word representations has focused mainly on native speakers. The picture becomes even more complex when looking at spoken word recognition in a second language. Given that most of the world’s speakers know and use more than one language, it is crucial to reach a more precise understanding of how bilingual and multilingual individuals encode spoken words in the mental lexicon, and why spoken word recognition is more difficult in a second language than in the native language. Current models of native spoken word recognition operate under two assumptions: (i) that listeners’ perception of the incoming speech signal is optimal; and (ii) that listeners’ lexical representations are accurate. As a result, lexical representations are easily activated, and intended words are successfully recognized. However, these assumptions are compromised when applied to a later-learned second language. For a variety of reasons (e.g., phonetic/phonological, orthographic), second language users may not perceive the speech signal optimally, and they may still be refining the motor routines needed for articulation. Accordingly, their lexical representations may differ from those of native speakers, which may in turn inhibit their selection of the intended word forms. Second language users also have to solve a larger selection challenge—having words in more than one language to choose from. Thus, for second language users, the links between perception, lexical representations, orthography, and production are all but clear. Even for simultaneous bilinguals, important questions remain about the specificity and interdependence of their lexical representations and the factors influencing cross-language word activation. This Frontiers Research Topic seeks to further our understanding of the factors that determine how multilinguals recognize and encode spoken words in the mental lexicon, with a focus on the mapping between the input and lexical representations, and on the quality of lexical representations.

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