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Abiotic Stresses in Agroecology: A Challenge for Whole Plant Physiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452040 Year: Pages: 177 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-204-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Understanding plant responses to abiotic stresses is central to our ability to predict the impact of global change and environmental pollution on the production of food, feed and forestry. Besides increasing carbon dioxide concentration and rising global temperature, increasingly frequent and severe climatic events (e.g. extended droughts, heat waves, flooding) are expected in the coming decades. Additionally, pollution (e.g. heavy metals, gaseous pollutants such as ozone or sulfur dioxide) is an important factor in many regions, decreasing plant productivity and product quality. This Research topic focuses on stress responses at the level of whole plants, addressing biomass-related processes (development of the root system, root respiration/fermentation, leaf expansion, stomatal regulation, photosynthetic capacity, leaf senescence, yield) and interactions between organs (transport via xylem and phloem, long-distance signaling and secondary metabolites). Comparisons between species and between varieties of the same species are helpful to evaluate the potential for species selection and genetic improvement. This research topic is focused on the following abiotic stresses and interactions between them:- Increased carbon dioxide concentration in ambient air is an important parameter influenced by global change and affects photosynthesis, stomatal regulation, plant growth and finally yield.- Elevated temperature: both the steady rise in average temperature and extreme events of shorter duration (heat waves) must be considered in the context of alterations in carbon balance through increased photorespiration, decreased Rubisco activation and carboxylation efficiency, damage to photosynthetic apparatus, as well as loss of water via transpiration and stomatal sensitivity. - Low temperatures (late frosts, prolonged cold phases, freezing temperature) can decrease overwintering survival rates, productivity of crop plants and species composition in meadows.- Water availability: More frequent, severe and extended drought periods have been predicted by climate change models. The timing and duration of a drought period is crucial to determining plant responses, particularly if the drought event coincides with an increase in temperature. Drought causes stomatal closure, decreasing the cooling potential of transpiration and potentially leading to thermal stress as leaf temperature rises. Waterlogging may become also more relevant during the next decades and is especially important for seedlings and young plants. It is not the presence of water itself that causes the stress, but the exclusion of oxygen from the soil which causes a decrease in respiration and an increase in fermentation rates followed by a period of potential oxidative stress as water recedes.- Salinity: high salt concentration in soil influences soil water potential, the water status of the plant and hence affects productivity. Salt tolerance will become an important trait driven by increased competition for land and the need to exploit marginal lands.

Plants; Stress & Proteins

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452675 Year: Pages: 323 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-267-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Biotic and abiotic stress factors deliver a huge impact on plant life. Biotic stress factors such as damage through pathogens or herbivore attack, as well as abiotic stress factors like variation in temperature, rainfall and salinity, have placed the plant kingdom under constant challenges for survival. As a consequence, global agricultural and horticultural productivity has been disturbed to a large extent. Being sessile in nature, plants cannot escape from the stress, and instead adapt changes within their system to overcome the adverse conditions. These changes include physiological, developmental and biochemical alterations within the plant body which influences the genome, proteome and metabolome profiles of the plant. Since proteins are the ultimate players of cellular behavior, proteome level alterations during and recovery period of stress provide direct implications of plant responses towards stress factors. With current advancement of modern high-throughput technologies, much research has been carried out in this field. This e-book highlights the research and review articles that cover proteome level changes during the course or recovery period of various stress factors in plant life. Overall, the chapters in this e-book has provided a wealth of information on how plants deal with stress from a proteomics perspective.

Deep Carbon in Earth: Early Career Scientist Contributions to the Deep Carbon Observatory

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453634 Year: Pages: 221 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-363-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography --- Chemistry (General) --- Microbiology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Since its inception, the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) has coalesced a multidisciplinary and international group of researchers focused on understanding and quantifying Earth’s deep carbon budget. Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe, and understanding carbon chemistry under a variety of environmental conditions impacts all aspects of planetary sciences, including planet formation, the form and function of planetary interiors, and the origin and diversity of life. DCO recognizes that is integrating and promoting the contributions of early career scientists are integral to the advancement of knowledge regarding the quantities, movements, origins, and forms of Earth’s deep carbon through field, experimental, analytical, and computational research. Early career scientists represent the future of deep carbon science and contribute substantially to ongoing research by implementing innovative ideas, challenging traditional working schemes, and bringing a globally interconnected perspective to the scientific community. This research topic highlights the contributions at the forefront of deep carbon research by DCO Early Career Scientist community. The manuscripts of this Frontiers e-volume bear evidence of the rapid advances in deep carbon science, and highlights the importance of approaching this field from a plethora of different angles integrating disciplines as diverse as mineralogy, geochemistry and microbiology. This integration is fundamental in understanding the movements and transformations of carbon across its deep cycle.

Characterization of High Temperature Superconductor Cables for Magnet Toroidal Field Coils of the DEMO Fusion Power Plant

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Book Series: Karlsruher Schriftenreihe zur Supraleitung / Hrsg. Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Noe, Prof. Dr. rer. nat. M. Siegel ISSN: 18691765 ISBN: 9783731506058 Year: Volume: 18 Pages: VII, 198 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000062054 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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Nuclear fusion is a key technology to satisfy the basic demand for electric energy sustainably. The official EUROfusion schedule foresees a first industrial DEMOnstration Fusion Power Plant for 2050. In this work several high temperature superconductor sub-size cables are investigated for their applicability in large scale DEMO toroidal field coils. Main focus lies on the electromechanical stability under the influence of high Lorentz forces at peak magnetic fields of up to 12 T.

Magnetization of High Temperature Superconducting Trapped-Field Magnets

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Book Series: Karlsruher Schriftenreihe zur Supraleitung / Hrsg. Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Noe, Prof. Dr. rer. nat. M. Siegel ISSN: 18691765 ISBN: 9783731507154 Year: Volume: 19 Pages: XV, 141 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000073433 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks and stacks of coated conductors can be magnetized to become trapped-field magnets that provide much stronger magnetic fields than those reachable with conventional permanent magnets. This work investigates the flux dynamics during the magnetization of HTS trapped-field magnets and proposes possible strategies to improve the trapped field produced by the pulsed field magnetization method that is promising for practical applications.

Flexible and Stretchable Electronics

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ISBN: 9783038424369 9783038424376 Year: Pages: VIII, 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-437-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-27 09:51:34
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Flexible and stretchable electronics are receiving tremendous attention as future electronics due to their flexibility and light weight, especially as applications in wearable electronics. Flexible electronics are usually fabricated on heat sensitive flexible substrates such as plastic, fabric or even paper, while stretchable electronics are usually fabricated from an elastomeric substrate to survive large deformation in their practical application. Therefore, successful fabrication of flexible electronics needs low temperature processable novel materials and a particular processing development because traditional materials and processes are not compatible with flexible/stretchable electronics. Huge technical challenges and opportunities surround these dramatic changes from the perspective of new material design and processing, new fabrication techniques, large deformation mechanics, new application development and so on. Here, we invited talented researchers to join us in this new vital field that holds the potential to reshape our future life, by contributing their words of wisdom from their particular perspective.

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