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The Global Challenge Posed by the Multiresistant International Clones of Bacterial Pathogens

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452170 Year: Pages: 291 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-217-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Abstract

Multiresistant bacterial pathogens pose a serious problem worldwide making the appropriate treatment of patients with healthcare-associated infections a challenge. The spread of antibiotic resistance is either mediated by mobile genetic elements (MGEs) or the dissemination of genetically-related groups of pathogens, “high-risk clonal complexes”. Interestingly most multiresistant healthcare-associated bacteria command just a few dominant international clonal complexes causing infections in various geographical areas. It is of utmost importance to identify the determinants associated with and promoting the spread of antibiotic resistance and the dissemination of these multiresistant pathogens. The Topic comprises mostly of population and epidemiological studies investigating antibiotic resistance mechanisms, MGEs and the impact of antibiotic resistance, and the production of virulence factors on the clonal dynamics of a diverse range of bacterial species. Though, the exploration of the mechanisms governing clonal dynamics and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance will remain a salient issue for a considerable time to come we believe that the papers published in the Topic have usefully contributed to the better understanding of some of the processes involved and supplement papers investigating the “non-bacterial” constituents of clonal mobility, like proper medical practice and compliance with hygienic standards.

A Multidisciplinary Look at Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: An Emerging Multi-Drug-Resistant Global Opportunistic Pathogen

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453535 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-353-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Abstract

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a Gram-negative bacterium found in water, plant rhizospheres, animals, and foods. It is associated with a variety of infections in humans, involving respiratory tract (most common), soft tissue and bone, blood, eye, heart, and brain. This opportunistic pathogen is of serious concern to the immunocompromised patient population, and it is also being isolated with increasing frequency from the respiratory tract of individuals with cystic fibrosis. The observed increase worldwide in antibiotic resistance and the ability of this organism to make biofilms on epithelial cells and medical devices make it difficult for health-care personnel to treat infections caused by this pathogen. Recently, several genomes of S. maltophilia have been sequenced, revealing high genetic diversity among isolates. This pathogen uses a variety of molecular mechanisms to acquire and demonstrate resistance to an impressive array of antimicrobial drugs. Research has also focused on the pathogenesis of S. maltophilia in animal models and the resulting host immune response. S. maltophilia is recognized as an important organism in the plant microbiome. This environmental bacterium uses a diffusible signal mechanism for controlling its colonization and interaction with other bacteria and plants. S. maltophilia has also gained considerable research interest for its biotechnological applications, with recent studies on enzyme production, anti-biofilm strategies, biodegradation, and bioremediation. This e-book focuses on the latest developments in the areas of physiology, genomics, infection and immunity, host-pathogen interaction, pathogenesis, antimicrobial resistance and therapy, molecular epidemiology, applied and environmental microbiology, bioremediation and biotechnology.

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