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Fatigue Damage

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ISBN: 9783038426240 9783038426257 Year: Pages: VI, 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-625-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-22 11:24:46
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Abstract

There is an increasing acknowledgement in the engineering community that the response to this challenge, that is, prevention of catastrophic failure, generally requires a systems approach and necessitates engagement of a large pool of multidisciplinary expertise and the deployment of tools for systems analysis. This multidisciplinary pool includes materials science, structural analysis, manufacturing technologies, quality control and evaluation, mathematics, physics, and probability and reliability. Furthermore, from the scientific point of view, there is also an increasing acknowledgement that addressing the complex engineering problems of today requires the use of concepts and approaches that can account for size and time scaling effects. The Special Issue scope embraces interdisciplinary work aimed at understanding and deploying physics of fatigue and failure techniques, advancing experimental and theoretical failure analysis, modelling of the structural response with respect to both local and global failures, and structural design that accounts for scale and time effects in preventing engineering failures.

Keywords

Fatigue --- Design --- Crack growth --- Fracture

Nutrition in Pregnancy - Volume II

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ISBN: 9783038423690 9783038423683 Year: Pages: XX, 270 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-28 10:21:23
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Maternal nutrition during pregnancy is of considerable interest to women, their partners and their health care professionals. In developing countries, maternal undernutrition is a major concern. However, with the increased prevalence of abundant high calorie diets, their impact upon pregnancy outcome is of concern. In addition to the amount of nutrition available and its macronutrient composition within a diet, there is emerging evidence highlighting important roles for the lesser studied micronutrients. Added to this complexity is the distinction between maternal and fetal nutrition and the impact the placenta plays in nutrient metabolism and overall nutrient supply to the fetus. Together, these many variables contribute to placental development and function, fetal growth, and, where placental/fetal nutrition and growth is compromised, through poor maternal diet, and/or diet induced alterations in placental metabolism, the impact is dramatic and can lead to lifelong implications for the offspring. This Special Issue book aims to highlight research in many of these areas.

Nutrients in Infancy

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ISBN: 9783038425601 9783038425618 Year: Pages: XII, 436 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-06 13:02:46
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Infants are not just small adults; they have a complex set of nutrient requirements and interactions to account for the high metabolic rate, growth, immunological and cognitive development, etc. Each year there are 138 million births, including 30 million from the least developed countries, where health is most at risk. Nutrition during infancy establishes growth patterns and development which moderate short term and long term health and life expectancy. There is continuing progress in understanding the nutrient composition of breastmilk and the importance nutritious and timely complementary foods. Nutrients at particular risk in the first years of life are iron, iodine, and vitamins A and D. There are still gaps in our knowledge on the influence of maternal diet, body composition and nutritional status on breastmilk nutrients. Interaction of nutrients with the human microbiome and gastro-intestinal tract hormonal secretion are developing fields. While breastmilk remains the “gold standard of pediatric nutrition”, the provisions of nutrients providing for optimal health in infant formulae, including nutrients and probiotics remains an area of research. The assessment of body composition for research and clinical practice has progressed rapidly and is important in understanding later obesity. After six months of age, there are new issues of the interaction of weaning foods and later family foods with the maturing gastro-intestinal tract to promote health and growth. Infant nutrition is made more difficult (and interesting) by the many cultural beliefs related to feeding practices. Developments in all of these fields of research into pediatric nutrition will be explored in this special issue together with state of the art reviews.

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2017 (3)