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Non-Pharmacological Interventions for Schizophrenia: How Much Can Be Achieved and How?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450091 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-009-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The introduction of antipsychotic agents in the 1950’s substantially improved the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. However, clinical and functional outcomes are still far less than optimal for patients, and have not improved in recent years despite the development of several new antipsychotics. Efficacy rates are further compromised by medication non-adherence, which has been reported to affect more than half of patients. In response to these issues, several non-pharmacological interventions have been developed for the treatment of schizophrenia, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive remediation, social cognition training and metacognitive approaches. Although these interventions have produced promising results, there is still much controversy regarding their usefulness and applicability in clinical practice. A major impeding factor for their dissemination is possibly a lack of sufficient evidence regarding their specific indications, mechanisms of action, adverse effects, but also practical issues concerning the interpretability of respective clinical studies, such as the choice of outcome variables and control of confounding factors. The present Research Topic includes original research articles and reviews addressing these issues.

Emerging Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Antibiotic Resistance and Novel Treatment Options

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451890 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-189-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Enterobacteriaceae are spread worldwide and the diseases they cause may be fatal especially in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, the high prevalence of ESBL producing Salmonella and Shigella species diseases worldwide suggests major underlying safety issues. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 2015, approximately 220 million children contract diarrhoeal diseases every year and 96 000 die. As a result, the increase in single or multi drug-resistant foodborne bacterial pathogens is of major public health concern. Moreover, resistance to antimicrobials was found among Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp from animals and food, and since fluoroquinolones became licensed for use in animal foods, especially for poultry, the rate of fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp in animals and human food, and then in human infections, rapidly increased. To that purpose, the findings of the conducted studies in the book chapters, 1) highlight surveillance studies reporting the occurrence and distribution of resistance to antimicrobial agents, namely, to third generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones, 2) describe the mechanisms of transmission of resistance determinants from animals, food products and clinical specimens, that allow implementation of appropriate measures to control their spread and adopt appropriate therapeutic measures, and 3) provide treatment options, useful to medical practice.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae Clinical Manifestations, Microbiology, and Immunology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453627 Year: Pages: 175 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-362-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) is a major human pathogen that causes both upper and lower respiratory infections, and is one of the leading causes of community acquired pneumonia (CAP), accounting for 11–15% of CAP throughout the world. Additionally it is known to induce an inflammatory process which depends on several mechanisms such as virulence of Mp (lipoproteins, community acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin, oxidative products) and host defenses (cellular immunity and humoral immunity). Although it is a common pathogen, the pathogenesis for Mp infections is not yet fully understood. From the clinical point of view, since the pioneer studies in the 1960s and 1970s on the clinical presentation of Mp associated disease, the diagnostics approaches have changed dramatically leading to a better understanding of the clinical presentation and new issues have emerged - such as antibiotics resistance. The purpose of this Frontiers ebook is to thoroughly review and discuss the clinical presentation in view of the improved diagnostics, microbiological and immunological analysis of Mp infections, with focus on the history of Mp, clinical features of disease, bacterial structure of Mp and mechanism of gliding, clinical and laboratory diagnostics, the role of lipoproteins and Toll-like receptor, CARDS toxin, subtyping of Mp isolates and genome analysis, macrolide resistance and treatment.

Intellectual Disabilities in Down Syndrome from Birth and throughout Life: Assessment and Treatment

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450459 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-045-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Research on the multiple aspects of cognitive impairment in Down syndrome (DS), from genes to behavior to treatment, has made tremendous progress in the last decade. The study of congenital intellectual disabilities such as DS is challenging since they originate from the earliest stages of development and both the acquisition of cognitive skills and neurodegenerative pathologies are cumulative. Comorbidities such as cardiac malformations, sleep apnea, diabetes and dementia are frequent in the DS population, as well, and their increased risk provides a means of assessing early stages of these pathologies that is relevant to the general population. Notably, persons with DS will develop the histopathology of Alzheimer’s disease (formation of neuritic plaques and tangles) and are at high risk for dementia, something that cannot be predicted in the population at large. Identification of the gene encoding the amyloid precursor protein, its localization to chromosome 21 in the 90’s and realization that all persons with DS develop pathology identified this as an important piece of the amyloid cascade hypothesis in Alzheimer’s disease. Awareness of the potential role of people with DS in understanding progression and treatment as well as identification of genetic risk factors and also protective factors for AD is reawakening. For the first time since DS was recognized, major pharmaceutical companies have entered the search for ameliorative treatments, and phase II clinical trials to improve learning and memory are in progress. Enriched environment, brain stimulation and alternative therapies are being tested while clinical assessment is improving, thus increasing the chances of success for therapeutic interventions. Researchers and clinicians are actively pursuing the possibility of prenatal treatments for many conditions, an area with a huge potential impact for developmental disorders such as DS. Our goal here is to present an overview of recent advances with an emphasis on behavioral and cognitive deficits and how these issues change through life in DS. The relevance of comorbidities to the end phenotypes described and relevance of pharmacological targets and possible treatments will be considerations throughout.Research on the multiple aspects of cognitive impairment in Down syndrome (DS), from genes to behavior to treatment, has made tremendous progress in the last decade. The study of congenital intellectual disabilities such as DS is challenging since they originate from the earliest stages of development and both the acquisition of cognitive skills and neurodegenerative pathologies are cumulative. Comorbidities such as cardiac malformations, sleep apnea, diabetes and dementia are frequent in the DS population, as well, and their increased risk provides a means of assessing early stages of these pathologies that is relevant to the general population. Notably, persons with DS will develop the histopathology of Alzheimer’s disease (formation of neuritic plaques and tangles) and are at high risk for dementia, something that cannot be predicted in the population at large. Identification of the gene encoding the amyloid precursor protein, its localization to chromosome 21 in the 90’s and realization that all persons with DS develop pathology identified this as an important piece of the amyloid cascade hypothesis in Alzheimer’s disease. Awareness of the potential role of people with DS in understanding progression and treatment as well as identification of genetic risk factors and also protective factors for AD is reawakening. For the first time since DS was recognized, major pharmaceutical companies have entered the search for ameliorative treatments, and phase II clinical trials to improve learning and memory are in progress. Enriched environment, brain stimulation and alternative therapies are being tested while clinical assessment is improving, thus increasing the chances of success for therapeutic interventions. Researchers and clinicians are actively pursuing the possibility of prenatal treatments for many conditions, an area with a huge potential impact for developmental disorders such as DS. Our goal here is to present an overview of recent advances with an emphasis on behavioral and cognitive deficits and how these issues change through life in DS. The relevance of comorbidities to the end phenotypes described and relevance of pharmacological targets and possible treatments will be considerations throughout.

Advancements in Algal Biofuels Research - Recent Evaluation of Algal Biomass Production and Conversion Methods of into Fuels and High Value Co-products

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451982 Year: Pages: 81 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-198-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Algae biomass has enormous potential to produce fuels and value-added products. Algae-derived biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to U.S. energy security and in mitigating the environmental concerns associated with conventional fuels. Algae’s ability to grow in low quality water/wastewater and to accumulate lipids has encouraged scientists to investigate algae as a medium for wastewater treatment and a potential source of fuel and bioproducts. There are growing demands for biomass-based transportation fuels, including biodiesel, bio-oil, biomethane, biohydrogen, and other high-value products (nutraceuticals, proteins, omega-3 etc.). Algae can help address these needs. The topic of algae energy includes the production and characterization of algae cultures, conversion into fuel feedstocks and high value products, and optimization of product isolation and use. In view of the increasing efforts in algae biomass production and conversion into energy and high-value products, the current research topic covers important aspects of algal strain selection, culture systems, inorganic carbon utilization, lipid metabolism and quality, biomass harvesting, extraction of lipids and proteins, and thermochemical conversion of algal feedstocks into biocrude.

Phage Therapy: Past; Present and Future

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452514 Year: Pages: 392 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-251-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Historically, the first observation of a transmissible lytic agent that is specifically active against a bacterium (Bacillus anthracis) was by a Russian microbiologist Nikolay Gamaleya in 1898. At that time, however, it was too early to make a connection to another discovery made by Dmitri Ivanovsky in 1892 and Martinus Beijerinck in 1898 on a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants. Thus the viral world was discovered in two of the three domains of life, and our current understanding is that viruses represent the most abundant biological entities on the planet. The potential of bacteriophages for infection treatment have been recognized after the discoveries by Frederick Twort and Felix d’Hérelle in 1915 and 1917. Subsequent phage therapy developments, however, have been overshadowed by the remarkable success of antibiotics in infection control and treatment, and phage therapy research and development persisted mostly in the former Soviet Union countries, Russia and Georgia, as well as in France and Poland. The dramatic rise of antibiotic resistance and especially of multi-drug resistance among human and animal bacterial pathogens, however, challenged the position of antibiotics as a single most important pillar for infection control and treatment. Thus there is a renewed interest in phage therapy as a possible additive/alternative therapy, especially for the infections that resist routine antibiotic treatment. The basis for the revival of phage therapy is affected by a number of issues that need to be resolved before it can enter the arena, which is traditionally reserved for antibiotics. Probably the most important is the regulatory issue: How should phage therapy be regulated? Similarly to drugs? Then the co-evolving nature of phage-bacterial host relationship will be a major hurdle for the production of consistent phage formulae. Or should we resort to the phage products such as lysins and the corresponding engineered versions in order to have accurate and consistent delivery doses? We still have very limited knowledge about the pharmacodynamics of phage therapy. More data, obtained in animal models, are necessary to evaluate the phage therapy efficiency compared, for example, to antibiotics. Another aspect is the safety of phage therapy. How do phages interact with the immune system and to what costs, or benefits? What are the risks, in the course of phage therapy, of transduction of undesirable properties such as virulence or antibiotic resistance genes? How frequent is the development of bacterial host resistance during phage therapy? Understanding these and many other aspects of phage therapy, basic and applied, is the main subject of this Topic.

Second Line Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical; Pathological and Molecular Aspects of Novel Promising Drugs

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452637 Year: Pages: 84 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-263-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Lung cancer still remains a challenging disease with a higher mortality rate in comparison to other cancers. The discovery of oncogene addicted tumours and targeted therapies responsive to these targets lead to a meaningful change in the prognosis of these diseases. Unfortunately, these newer therapeutic options are reserved to a minor part of lung cancer patients harbouring specific mutations. In the so called wild type population, the first line options bring the median overall survival to go beyond 1 year, and in the population receiving the maintenance therapy over 16 months. Given these results, more than 60% of patients may receive a second line therapy with further opportunities to improve the length and quality of life. For patients not harbouring targetable DNA mutations newer options will be available for second line therapeutic schemes and two major assets seem to be promising: immune modulation and anti-angiogenetic agents. In particular, anti PD1/PDL1 antibodies, VEGFR antibodies and TKIs, these latter combined with standard chemotherapy docetaxel advance the median overall survival of 12 months. These drugs have a different mechanism of action, various adverse events and their activity is different depending on the types of population. However, the biomarkers’ activity and efficacy prediction are not fully or totally understood. In addition, also for patients with DNA targetable mutations new drugs seems to be promising for the use in the second line therapeutic protocols. In particular, drugs selectively directed against ALK translocation and mutational events and EGFR T790M secondary mutations seems to be very promising. In this Research Topic we critically discuss the older therapies and the historical development of second line, putting in to perspective the new agents available in clinical practice. We discuss their importance from a clinical point of view, but also consider and exploit the complex molecular mechanisms responsible of their efficacy or of the subsequently observed resistance phenomena. In this perspective, the undercovering and characterization of novel predictive biomarkers by NGS technology, the characterization of novel actors in the signal transduction pathway modulating the response of the cells, the optimization of new diagnostic tool as the evaluation of liquid biopsy and the implementation of more suitable pre-clinical models are crucial aspects dissected too. Nivolumab, nintedanib and ramucirumab probably will give the opportunity to improve the efficacy outcomes for the treatment of wild type tumours in second line therapeutic schemes, but many aspects should be debated in order that these agents are made available to patients, planning ahead a therapeutic strategy, beginning from the first line therapy, to the subsequent ones in a logical and affordable manner. As well, for treatment of mutated tumours, mutated EGFR irreversible inhibitors such as rociletinib and AZD9291, and ALK targeting drugs ceritinib and alectinib will also play an important role in the immediate future. Probably the right way is to give all the available opportunities to patients, but challenges and pitfalls should be carefully debated, and by launching this Research Topic we tried to give some practical insights in this changing landscape.

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