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Novel Prospects in Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress

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ISBN: 9781789230864 9781789230871 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70102 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Cytology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of various diseases when there is a disruption of the intracellular redox balance and the homeostatic balance between cellular oxidants and antioxidants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) react with molecular targets including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids contributing to mitochondrial injury and cellular dysfunction. This book intends to provide the readers with an extensive overview of the novel approaches and prospects based on oxidative and nitrosative stress in the pathophysiology of various diseases and in the current treatment strategies with antioxidants.

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Living Cells

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ISBN: 9781789231342 9781789231359 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69697 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Cytology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Oxygen represents only 20% of the Earth's atmosphere, yet it is vital for the survival of aerobic organisms. There is a dark part of the use of oxygen that consists in generating reactive species that are potentially harmful to living organisms. Moreover, reactive oxygen species can combine with nitrogen derivatives and generate many other reactive species. Thus, living organisms are continuously assaulted by reactive species from external or internal sources. However, the real danger comes in the case of high concentrations and prolonged exposure to these species. This book presents an image of the mechanisms of action of reactive species and emphasizes their involvement in diseases. Inflammation and cancer are examined to determine when and how reactive species turn the evolution of a benign process to a malignant one. Some answers may come from recent studies indicating that reactive species are responsible for epigenetic changes.

Multidimensional Flow Cytometry Techniques for Novel Highly Informative Assays

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ISBN: 9781789233445 9781789233452 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68879 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Cytology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Flow cytometry's informative potential has been underestimated for many years because of a lack of adequate instruments, automation, reagents, and know-how to approach, integrate, and also substitute other techniques giving single information per assay. In the last decade, flow cytometers have become capable of performing high-throughput screening and high content analysis, evaluating tens of different samples' features in a single run up to 1536 formats on multiple cell populations. The introduction of imaging flow cytometry has filled the gap between flow cytometry and conventional high content imaging screening, putting flow cytometry at the center of many laboratories, which can now cover with a single instrument the vast majority of needs in research programs. The flow cytometry community is a multidisciplinary and diversified group with many different interests and fields of action. These characteristics have prompted the evolution of the techniques, applications, and instruments that allow the use of complex, sophisticated, and standardized and reliable flow cytometric assays in academic and industrial programs.

Current Understanding of Apoptosis - Programmed Cell Death

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ISBN: 9781789235005 9781789235012 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71637 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Cytology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Apoptosis is an essential biochemical process in cell turnover, development, and chemical-induced cell death. Current knowledge and ongoing research of apoptosis highlight our understanding in designing the therapeutic approaches for several diseases. This book covers four main sections: ""Apoptosis and Necrosis,"" ""Apoptosis Inducers,"" ""Proteasome and Signaling Pathways in Apoptosis,"" and ""Radiation-Based Apoptosis."" The first section implicitly describes the differences between apoptosis and necrosis processes. The following section elaborates the small molecule-induced apoptosis. Then, the third section deals with proteasome and signaling pathways and finally, resistance to chemotherapy and electromagnetic radiation is covered in the last section. Overall, the book deals with pathways for manipulating apoptosis and provides a unique perspective to the scientists.

Stem Cells in Clinical Practice and Tissue Engineering

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ISBN: 9781789230109 9781789230116 Year: Pages: 352 DOI: 10.5772/65995 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Cytology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Stem Cells in Clinical Practice and Tissue Engineering is a concise book on applied methods of stem cell differentiation and optimization using tissue engineering methods. These methods offer immediate use in clinical regenerative medicine. The present volume will serve the purpose of applied stem cell differentiation optimization methods in clinical research projects, as well as be useful to relatively experienced stem cell scientists and clinicians who might wish to develop their stem cell clinical centers or research labs further. Chapters are arranged in the order of basic concepts of stem cell differentiation, clinical applications of pluripotent stem cells in skin, cardiac, bone, dental, obesity centers, followed by tissue engineering, new materials used, and overall evaluation with their permitted legal status.

Ion Channels in Health and Sickness

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ISBN: 9781789842272 9781789842289 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.72025 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Cytology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Ion channels are proteins that make pores in the membranes of excitable cells present both in the brain and the body. These cells are not only responsible for converting chemical and mechanical stimuli into the electrical signals but are also liable for monitoring vital functions. All our activities, from the blinking of our eyes to the beating of our heart and all our senses from smell to sight, touch, taste and hearing are regulated by the ion channels. This book will take us on an expedition describing the role of ion channels in congenital and acquired diseases and the challenges and limitations scientist are facing in the development of drugs targeting these membrane proteins.

Calcium and Signal Transduction

Authors: ---
Book Series: Physiology ISSN: 26318261 ISBN: 9781789842494 9781789842500 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 202 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74489 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Cytology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Since the development of microelectronic clamping methodology and fluorescent indicators for direct measurement of dynamic intracellular calcium transients, our understanding of biological signal transduction has progressed dramatically since the 1980s. Calcium is a universal signal in biology that modulates gene expression, transmitter and hormone release, muscular movement, and even ""programmed"" cell death. This book represents a compilation of chapters from a diverse set of expert biologists throughout the world who have conducted research in the general area of calcium signaling in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. In accord with priorities of resolving human disease, the reader will also benefit from learning calcium's role in cellular signaling pathology relating to acute or chronic conditions such as vomiting, sepsis, obesity, hypertension, and cancer.

Keratin

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Book Series: Biochemistry ISSN: 26320983 ISBN: 9781789848045 9781789848052 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 180 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73230 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Cytology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Keratin is the proteinaceous body covering layer produced by mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians. Hair and wool, horns, claws, hooves, feathers, and scales are made of keratin. Keratin is insoluble in water and is resistant to proteolysis. Importantly, keratin is also the intracellular structural protein that protects living epithelial cells from mechanical damage or stress. The fundamental keratin functions are revealed in congenital human skin diseases caused by mutations in keratin genes, e.g., Epidermolysis bullosa simplex or Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. Most keratin gene mutations have a dominant-negative effect disrupting the filamentous structure formation even from the natural allele, and leaving the cell with a deficient cytoskeleton. However, industrial scale meat production results in vast quantities of keratin byproduct. Processing this byproduct is, on the one hand a major challenge, and on the other hand, a potential for useful recycling and exploitation.

Biomineralization

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9789811310027 Year: Pages: 413 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-13-1002-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Mathematics --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:26
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This open access book is the proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Biomineralization (BIOMIN XIV) held in 2017 at Tsukuba. Over the past 45 years, biomineralization research has unveiled details of the characteristics of the nano-structure of various biominerals; the formation mechanism of this nano-structure, including the initial stage of crystallization; and the function of organic matrices in biominerals, and this knowledge has been applied to dental, medical, pharmaceutical, materials, agricultural and environmental sciences and paleontology. As such, biomineralization is an important interdisciplinary research area, and further advances are expected in both fundamental and applied research.

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