Search results: Found 21

Listing 1 - 10 of 21 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by
Chapter: Introduction - Field Experiments (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781784716134 Year: DOI: 10.4337/9781784716134 Language: English
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-23 15:05:21
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This research review discusses the most critical and influential articles that utilise field experimentation to answer questions of economic importance. Field experiments have gained popularity in recent years, allowing researchers to infer causal effects of different market environments, policies and interventions. The articles analysed here provide insights into market functioning and individual and group decision-making across a wide range of domains, including marketplace transactions, labor decisions, charitable giving, financial planning, and education and health-related decision-making. This research review will be an important resource for students new to the methodology and applications of field experiments and academics alike.

Triage in Conservation

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454358 Year: Pages: 71 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-435-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Ecosystems and their constituent species the world over face a barrage of ongoing, and often escalating, threats. Conservation efforts aim to reduce the impact of these threats to ensure that global biodiversity continues to provide essential ecosystem services. As is most often the case, these efforts to protect threatened species and their environments are constrained by limited resources. Conservation biologists have therefore had to increase the efficiency of their conservation practices to deliver the greatest benefit at the lowest cost. This requires decision making using the best available knowledge to prioritise actions. A concept that has received considerable attention in this area is that of conservation triage.This eBook brings together perspectives from researchers and conservation practitioners who share their views and results in an effort to extend the discussion on this topic. A number of the papers in this eBook tackle the philosophical elements of conservation triage, while others take a more directed practical approach providing examples from conservation practice globally.

11 The Triad of Uncertainty (Book chapter)

Author:
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 14 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch11 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

"This chapter sheds light on interaction (samhandling) between scientists and politicians. What happens when the latter gives the former a role in an effort to ensure that society is not exposed to an unforeseen calamity? The chapter has two objectives – one conceptual and one pertaining to the analysis of public policy in a particular context. First, distinctions are drawn between three dimensions of uncertainty about the consequences of action. The aim is to create a clearer understanding of what is meant by assertions that policy is made under conditions of uncertainty. Secondly, the political implications of uncertainty are charted with particular reference to the choice of climate policy. The analysis targets the way the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has handled the task of publicizing the effect that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases have on the atmosphere. The conclusion is that the IPCC’s communication with politicians and the public has contributed to, rather than ameliorated, the problem of uncertainty that stands in the way of resolute political action."

Memory Systems of the Addicted Brain: The Underestimated Role of Drug-Induced Cognitive Biases in Addiction and Its Treatment

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454877 Year: Pages: 163 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-487-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Drug addiction may be viewed as a form of learning during which strong associations linking actions to drug-seeking are expressed as persistent stimulus–response habits, thereby maintaining a vulnerability to relapse. Disrupting cue–drug memory could be an efficient strategy to reduce the strength of cues in motivating drug-taking behavior. Upon reactivation, these memories undergo a reconsolidation process that can be blocked pharmacologically, providing an opportunity to prevent the powerful control of drug cues on behavior. This conceptually elegant approach still calls for more experimental data. However, an increasing body of evidence suggests that drug taking not only accelerates habit forming, but has long-lasting effects on interactions between memory systems eventually leading to a functional imbalance. The dorsal part of the striatum plays a critical role in habit/procedural learning, whereas the hippocampal memory system encodes relationships between events and their later flexible use. Both humans and rodents studies support the view that the hippocampus and the dorsal striatum interact in either a cooperative or competitive manner during learning, the prefrontal cortex being involved in the selection of an appropriate learning strategy. Chronic drug consumption biases normal interactions between these memory systems. For instance, drug-experienced rodents tend to use preferentially striatum-dependent learning strategies in navigational tasks. These persistent effects seem to occur at cellular, neurophysiological and behavioral levels to promote specific, striatal-dependent forms of learning, to the detriment of spatial/declarative, hippocampal-dependent and more flexible types of memory. Whether cue sensitive and response learners, in contrast to spatial learners, could be prone to drug addiction is an intriguing hypothesis which clearly deserves to be further explored. A loss of flexibility may be uncovered also by imposing changing rules on the subject, such as requiring an attentional shift between different perceptual features of a complex stimulus, as in the attentional set shifting task which was recently adapted to rodents. Working memory is at risk during transition phases, although it remains to be determined whether withdrawal-induced alterations are observed also during protracted abstinence. Drug-induced cognitive biases thus lead to cognitive rigidity which could play a critical, yet overlooked role in different phases of addiction (acquisition, extinction/withdrawal and relapse). They are also likely to preclude the clinical efficiency of treatments. Therefore, the aim of this research topic is to provide an overview of the current work investigating the long-term impact of drug use on learning and memory processes, how multiple memory systems modulate drug-seeking behavior, as well as how drug-induced cognitive biases could contribute to the persistence of addictive behaviors.

Complex Problem Solving Beyond the Psychometric Approach

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455737 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-573-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Complex problem solving (CPS) and related topics such as dynamic decision-making (DDM) and complex dynamic control (CDC) represent multifaceted psychological phenomena. In abroad sense, CPS encompasses learning, decision-making, and acting in complex and dynamic situations. Moreover, solutions to problems that people face in such situations are often generated in teams or groups. This adds another layer of complexity to the situation itself because of the emerging issues that arise from the social dynamics of group interactions. This framing of CPS means that it is not a single construct that can be measured by using a particular type of CPS task (e.g. minimal complex system tests), which is a view taken by the psychometric community. The proposed approach taken here is that because CPS is multifaceted, multiple approaches need to be taken to fully capture and understand what it is and how the different cognitive processes associated with it complement each other.Thus, this Research Topic is aimed at showcasing the latest work in the fields of CPS, as well as DDM and CDC that takes a holist approach to investigating and theorizing about these abilities. The collection of articles encompasses conceptual approaches as well as experimental and correlational studies involving established or new tools to examine CPS, DDM and CDC. This work contributes to answering questions about what strategies and what general knowledge can be transferred from one type of complex and dynamic situation to another, what learning conditions result in transferable knowledge and skills, and how these features can be trained.

Riskienhallinnan ajankohtaisia teemoja

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9789520307011 Year: Pages: 248 Language: Finnish
Publisher: Tampere University Press
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-10 11:02:32
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This book presents a variety of different themes related to risks and risk management. The book consists of research papers aimed at supplementing and updating the topics discussed previously in risk management literature. The articles cover the key concepts and essence of risk and risk management, basic issues of security construction, risk awareness in corporate decision-making, reputation risk and its impact on business operations, social risks, their significance and the dimensions of social risk management. The last article presents the freely available RiskDemo software, which allows the reader to test and illustrate a wide range of risk features. The book aims to respond to the recent changes in the risk management environment as well as to stimulate academic debate on the subject.

Fuzzy Techniques for Decision Making

Author:
ISBN: 9783038428879 9783038428886 Year: Pages: VI, 404 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-18 13:55:26
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This book contains the successful invited submissions to a Special Issue of Symmetry in the subject area of “Fuzzy Techniques for Decision Making”. We invited contributions addressing novel techniques and tools for decision making (e.g., group or multi-criteria decision making) with notions that overcome the problem of finding the membership degree of each element as in Zadeh's original model. We could garner interesting articles on a variety of setups as well as applications. As a result, this book includes some novel techniques and tools for decision making, such as instrumental tools for analysis (correlation coefficients, similarity measures, aggregation operators) in various settings and novel methodological contributions (discrete optimization with fuzzy constraints, COMET, or fuzzy bi-matrix games) and applications (to project delivery systems, maintenance performance in industry, group emergencies, pedestrians flows, valuation of assets, water pollution control, or aquaculture enterprise sustainability). The published submissions cover models like fuzzy soft sets, hesitant fuzzy sets, (fuzzy) soft rough sets, neutrosophic sets, as well as other hybrid models.

Modeling Disease Spread and Control

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453849 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-384-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Mathematical models are useful tools to understand the epidemiology and agent-host interaction of diseases. They are developed and applied since over a century, but with increasing computer capacity, they become increasingly prominent as part of evidence based decision making. Mathematical models are frequently used to construct preparedness and contingency plans for highly contagious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease. This allows proposing effective strategies to control the spread of the disease in case of an incursion, and avails useful tools to support decision making during an outbreak. They are also used to monitor, prevent and control endemic diseases within populations or farms. In addition, mathematical models improve our understanding of the contact structure between farms, pointing out risky elements in the contact network for disease introduction or further spread within the population. This Research Topic presents valuable studies presenting different aspects and implementations of mathematical modeling for disease spread and control in the veterinary field. The areas covered include model construction, network analysis, tools for decision makers, and cost-effective control of endemic diseases.

Applications of Quantum Mechanical Techniques to Areas Outside of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454273 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-427-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This book deals with applications of quantum mechanical techniques to areas outside of quantum mechanics, so-called quantum-like modeling. Research in this area has grown over the last 15 years. But even already more than 50 years ago, the interaction between Physics Nobelist Pauli and the psychologist Carl Jung in the 1950's on seeking to find analogous uses of the complementarity principle from quantum mechanics in psychology needs noting. This book does NOT want to advance that society is quantum mechanical! The macroscopic world is manifestly not quantum mechanical. But this rules not out that one can use concepts and the mathematical apparatus from quantum physics in a macroscopic environment. A mainstay ingredient of quantum mechanics, is 'quantum probability' and this tool has been proven to be useful in the mathematical modelling of decision making. In the most basic experiment of quantum physics, the double slit experiment, it is known (from the works of A. Khrennikov) that the law of total probability is violated. It is now well documented that several decision making paradoxes in psychology and economics (such as the Ellsberg paradox) do exhibit this violation of the law of total probability. When data is collected with experiments which test 'non-rational' decision making behaviour, one can observe that such data often exhibits a complex non-commutative structure, which may be even more complex than if one considers the structure allied to the basic two slit experiment. The community exploring quantum-like models has tried to address how quantum probability can help in better explaining those paradoxes. Research has now been published in very high standing journals on resolving some of the paradoxes with the mathematics of quantum physics. The aim of this book is to collect the contributions of world's leading experts in quantum like modeling in decision making, psychology, cognition, economics, and finance.

Applications of Novel Analytical Methods in Epidemiology

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456581 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-658-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The repertoire of quantitative analytical techniques in disciplines such as ecology, decision science, and evolutionary biology has grown, in part enabled by the development and increased availability of computational resources. Integration of cutting-edge, quantitative tools into veterinary epidemiology that have been borrowed from such disciplines has offered opportunities to advance the study of disease dynamics in animal populations, to improve and guide decision-making related to disease prevention, control, or eradication. Furthermore, the need to explore new analytical methods for veterinary epidemiology has been driven by the increasing availability and complexity of animal disease data. The objective of this e-book is to contribute to current methods in epidemiology by 1) presenting and discussing novel analytical tools that help advance our understanding of epidemiology; and 2) demonstrating how inferences emerging from the application of novel analytical tools can be incorporated into decision-making related to animal health. The e-book constitutes a collection of articles that explore the applications of a variety of analytical methods such as machine learning, Bayesian risk assessment and an advanced form of social network analysis in the modern epidemiologic study of animal diseases.

Listing 1 - 10 of 21 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by