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Estuary

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ISBN: 9789535138792 9789535138808 9789535140078 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.5772/66262 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography --- Astronomy (General)
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Estuaries are regarded among the most ecologically threatened ecosystems worldwide largely due to poor land use practices within their catchment areas, freshwater abstraction, coastal development, and resource exploitation. Moreover, these systems act as repositories for various anthropogenic contaminants. The establishment and successful implementation of conservation and management strategies are critically dependent on understanding the links among physicochemical, hydrological, and biological variables within these systems. The book provides a comprehensive overview of selected topics including modeling of water exchange between estuaries and the ocean, sediment geochemistry and mangrove health, climate variability and hydrology, and pesticides in estuaries and ecosystem functioning for various estuaries including permanently open, mangrove, and intermittently open/closed systems in both the northern and the southern hemispheres.

Contributions to Mineralization

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ISBN: 9789535137481 9789535137498 9789535140689 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68760 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
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Contributions to Mineralization provide some new aspects on economically important mineral deposits from various locations in Asia, Africa, and Europe in terms of their genesis, geochemical, and age considerations. Mining industry and mineral engineering issues are also discussed in the book through some new statistical approaches and economic aspects. The book represents a useful guide for specialists in the fields of mineralogy, economic geology, mining engineering, environmental impacts, and mining industry.

Gravity - Geoscience Applications, Industrial Technology and Quantum Aspect

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ISBN: 9789535138235 9789535138242 9789535140597 Year: Pages: 226 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68576 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
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This book deals with different aspects of gravity that has proved its effectiveness throughout the world, hence their solicitation in recent years. Fundamental theories, applications, and tools have been presented, emphasizing the implementation of the gravity technique. Different research themes for diverse areas in the world are detailed here, highlighting new methods of studies that could be helpful for sophisticated and modern development over the next few years. Four main sections are presented: Gravity Interpretation Tools in Geoscience, Gravity in Geoscience Applications, Gravity in Industrial Technology, and Quantum Gravity. Theoretical and acquisition tools and adapted processing methods have been designed to take into account the initial data, and modeling results thus converge toward a better solution. This book, which makes a worthwhile contribution to the topic gravity, is specifically addressed to specialists, researchers, and industry professionals who shall find its content extremely useful for a better comprehension of the geological, spatial, and industrial aspects of gravity.

Risk Assessment

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ISBN: 9789535137986 9789535137993 9789535140634 Year: Pages: 384 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68673 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
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Risk assessment is one of the main parts of complex systematic research of natural and man-made hazards and risks together with the concepts of risk analysis, risk management, acceptable risk, and risk reduction. It is considered as the process of making a recommendation on whether existing risks are acceptable and present risk control measures are adequate, and if they are not, whether alternative risk control measures are justified or will be implemented. Risk assessment incorporates the risk analysis and risk evaluation phases. Risk management is considered as the complete process of risk assessment, risk control, and risk reduction. The book reflects on the state-of-the-art problems and addresses the risk assessment to establish the criteria for ranking risk posed by different types of natural or man-made hazards and disasters, to quantify the impact that hazardous event or process has on population and structures, and to enhance the strategies for risk reduction and avoiding.

Urban Agglomeration

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ISBN: 9789535138976 9789535138983 9789535140931 Year: Pages: 298 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70025 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
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People living in rural areas migrate to urban areas to secure better qualities of life, education, and health facilities and also because they believe that urban settings offer more livable conditions. These appealing features have led to rapid population growth in urban areas, which has resulted in problems that need to be solved through different urban planning and design approaches. In conjunction with this book, a supplemental resource, which both provides and proposes solutions based on innovative approaches to urbanization problems that emerge from urban agglomeration, has been created. This resource supplement shall also serve as a guide to future urban development efforts. In effect, this book will play an important role in compensating for the limited number of resource books on urbanization. This book is intended to be a reference source for scientists and students interested in the subject.

Corals in a Changing World

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789535139096 9789535139102 9789535139744 Year: Pages: 310 DOI: 10.5772/65203 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Aquaculture and Fisheries
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Corals comprise a wide variety of colonial marine invertebrates belonging to the Phylum Cnidaria. Their polyps form the most colorful, complete, and diverse communities on the Earth resembling underwater cities, commonly called coral reefs, which host a wide variety of invertebrates and fish species. They are highly productive ecosystems, contribute to the health of the biosphere, and offer a good number of economic and ecological services to coastal populations and to many people around the world. However, due to a diverse number of natural and anthropogenic stressors, corals have shown a severe decline over the past few decades. Being aware of the importance and relevance of the facts described, the book ""Corals in a Changing World"" offers new scientific information regarding the actual status and, in some cases, the resilience state of coral reef systems. Timely information is critical for managers and decision makers to implement sustainable management measures according to the ecological condition of coral reefs. In addition, the book also discusses the use of well-maintained coral microcosms to provide a good basis for performing experiments with natural fluctuations and to present studies dedicated to the coral diversity characterization and to their importance as a source of important biological compounds, which could be converted into industrial products.

Geophysics

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ISBN: 9781789230208 9781789230215 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.5772/68004 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geophysics and Geomagnetism --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
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This book is focused on different aspects of geophysical research, particularly on modern approach in subsurface imaging, tectonics, geohazard, seismicity, and Earth planetary system. Syntheses of results from regional and local studies combined with new techniques of geophysical data acquisition and interpretation from diverse geological provinces are presented. Some of the chapter explained clearly the geophysical technic that can image local sources in urban and rural settings in Israel. An example of studies on basement tectonics and fault reactivation in North America using integrated geophysical methods is also presented. Two modes of seismicity, one involving rotational seismology and another based on seismic response in Mexico using Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) as an alternative technique for extracting data that will be useful for the assessment of potential earthquake, are discussed in other sets of chapters. The integration of geoelectric methods in another chapter demonstrated delimitation of the resistivity anomalies caused by different types of hydrocarbon contaminants and rocks in rural, industrial, and urban sites. The results of electrical resistivity method to define 1D and 2D electrical models from two datasets acquired in dry and rainy seasons in Panama (Central America) were used to show the relationship between electrical resistivity and volumetric water content. Petrophysical analyses show good fits between resistivity and volumetric water content and known parameters for rocks and soils. The study on Earth planetary system noted that at all stages of the Earth?s formation, convective heat and mass transfer are the most important factors in the dynamics of the planet. The chapter on magnetics shows how remanent magnetization and self-demagnetization complicate the inversion and interpretation of magnetic anomaly with examples from iron deposit in South Australia.

Biological Resources of Water

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ISBN: 9781789230802 9781789230819 Year: Pages: 340 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69758 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Aquaculture and Fisheries
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The book is divided into two sections and represents the current trend of research in aquatic bioresource. In the section ""Biology, Ecology and Physiological Chemistry"", high-impact articles are contributed on reproduction, population genetics, evolution, biodiversity, biology and ecology of different aquatic faunas. Physiological chemistry of lipid, bioactive pharmaceuticals and chemical ecological aspects of aquatic organisms were discussed. In the section entitled ""Conservation and Sustainable Management"", authors highlighted conservation- and management-related issues of various bioresources in different regions of the earth. The book mentions the biological, ecological, physiological and genetic significance of aquatic organisms with resource potential. The authors stressed on rational utilisation and management of bioresource ensuring minimal damage of the aquatic ecosystem. This book would provide a direction towards sustainable ecological management of bioresource.

Surface Waves - New Trends and Developments

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ISBN: 9781789230628 9781789230635 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68840 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geophysics and Geomagnetism --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
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Surface waves have drawn a significant attention and interest in the recent years in a broad range of commercial applications, while their commercial developments have been supported by fundamental and applied research studies. This book is a result of contributions of experts from international scientific community working in different aspects of surface waves and reports on the state-of-the-art research and development findings on this topic through original and innovative research studies. It contains up-to-date publications of leading experts, and the edition is intended to furnish valuable recent information to the professionals involved in surface wave analysis and applications. The text is addressed not only to researchers but also to professional engineers, students, and other experts in various disciplines, both academic and industrial, seeking to gain a better understanding of what has been done in the field recently and what kind of open problems are in this area.

Topics in Radar Signal Processing

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ISBN: 9781789231205 9781789231212 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69785 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
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Radar has been an important topic since its introduction, in a military context, during World War II. Due to advances in technology, it has been necessary to refine the algorithms employed within the signal processing architecture. Hence, this book provides a series of chapters examining some topics in modern radar signal processing. These include synthetic aperture radar, multiple-input multiple-output radar, as well as a series of chapters examining other key issues relevant to the central theme of the book.

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