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Regulation of Inflammation; Its Resolution and Therapeutic Targeting

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453597 Year: Pages: 105 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-359-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Inflammation is a fundamental protective mechanism and at the same time the driving force of a variety of major diseases in humans. Indeed, acute self-resolving inflammation usually plays a positive role for the host, as exemplified by infectious diseases where its positive role is well established and testified by its perception as innate immunity. On the other hand, non-resolving inflammation and consequent chronicization is a key determinant of immunopathology and clinical manifestations of most major diseases in humans. As a consequence, it is increasing appreciated that the problem with inflammation is not how often it starts, but how often it fails to resolve. Appropriate resolution of inflammatory responses, which also drives activation of tissue damage repair mechanisms and return of local tissues to homeostasis, is a necessary process for ongoing health. Interestingly, cells sustaining these processes are also key to the proinflammatory responses, and the underlying “pro-resolving” molecular pathways are triggered as part of the pro-inflammatory response. This clearly indicates resolution of inflammation as an active process requiring functional repolarization of inflammatory cells that calls our attention on the underlying molecular mechanisms. The increasing number of anti-inflammatory drugs best-sellers in the pharma market is a clear indication of the relevance of having inflammation under check; nonetheless, there is still a great need for better acting pharmacological tools for the control of inflammation. Indeed, the remarkable success of biological drugs targeting proinflammatory cytokines has indicates that tools able to block proinflammatory mediators have promising applications, but at the same time has made clear that there are intrinsic limitations to this approach which frequently vanish undermine the activity of single targeting drugs, including the well-known redundancy of inflammatory mediators. Under self-limiting conditions inflammation spontaneously resolves in an active process. Some cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in inflammation resolution have been uncovered in the recent past, and include generation of specific cytokines, apoptosis of inflammatory leukocytes, lipid mediators, macrophage repolarization and others are likely to be revealed in the next future, since loss-of-function mutations of an increasing number of genes results in the development of spontaneous inflammation in experimental animals. We argue that “pushing for“ inflammation resolution by exploiting active naturally-occurring pro-resolving processes may have significant advantages over the attempt to simply “push back” inflammation by passive blockade of proinflammatory mediators. At present the research in the field of inflammation aims at identifying and validates new molecules involved in the resolution of inflammation as a basis for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. This involves the discovery of new natural or synthetic “pro-resolving” molecules from plant and animals and the investigation of endogenous inflammation “pro-resolving” mechanisms, including atypical chemokine receptors, decoy receptors, and microRNA. An extensive effort is focused on the regulation by “pro-resolving” agents on two molecular systems of key relevance in inflammation: the chemokine system, which regulates recruitment, permanence and egress of leukocyte in tissues; and the Toll Like Receptor (TLR)/IL-1R system, which is central for the activation of infiltrating leukocytes.

Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases

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ISBN: 9783038427919 9783038427926 Year: Pages: CCCXLVIII, 18 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-27 16:16:52
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Foodborne disease like salmonellosis and toxoplasmosis are amongst the most significant causes of hospitalization in the U.S. and globally. Gastrointestinal infections alter gut microbiomes and increase permeability to toxins. Various invasions by microbial, fungal, viral and parasitic agents stimulate inflammation, a defensive mechanism of the body’s immune system. Other stimuli include environmental stimuli, oxidative stress, aging and the physiological process. A long-lasting, persistent and excessive inflammatory response is a significant risk factor for developing various chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases.Different nutritional and dietary life styles, whether poor or lacking essential nutritional elements, as well as excess intake, can result in inflammatory complications and loss of function. Nutritional deficiency is linked with several infectious and inflammatory diseases as a cause or consequence. For instance, protein deficiency was reported in orphanages to provoke microbial and fungal complications including Pneumocystis pneumonia. Similarly, protein deficiency is a tell-tale sign of several parasitic diseases. Studies indicate that nutrients, such as amino acids, oligosaccharides, and short-chain fatty acids exert inhibitory and anti-inflammatory functions. These investigations help to understand nutritional contributions to the prevention, treatment and taming of certain inflammatory and infectious diseases. Infectious and inflammatory complications go hand-in-hand with malnutrition.The purpose of this Special Issue is to publish related new, basic and translational findings and clinical trials in this area. Other investigations or review articles were sought to link infectious and inflammatory diseases with nutrients. In addition, novel diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic modalities were invited to aid the development of nutritional strategies for the treatment and/or prevention of inflammation and infection. Original reviews were of particular interest to advance our understanding of signaling pathways, and the molecular and biochemical mechanisms behind the effects of nutrients on inflammatory and infectious diseases.

Microglia in Health and Disease: A Unique Immune Cell Population

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456017 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-601-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Microglia are essential for the development and function of the adult brain. Their ontogeny, together with the absence of turnover from the periphery and the singular environment of the central nervous system (CNS), make microglia a unique cell population compared to other tissue-macrophages. The unique properties and functions of microglial cells, such as their role in synaptic pruning or the exceptional capacity to scan the brain parenchyma and rapidly react to its perturbations, have emerged in recent years. In the coming years, understanding how microglia acquire and maintain their unique profiles in order to fulfil distinct tasks in the healthy CNS and how these are altered in disease, will be essential to develop strategies to diagnose or treat CNS disorders with an immunological component.This Research Topic covers several aspects of microglial biology, ranging from their origin and the functional role of microglia during development and lifespan, their molecular properties compared with other brain and peripheral immune cells to microglial phenotypes and functional states in neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumours. In conclusion, the present Research Topic provides a comprehensive overview of our current understanding of several cellular and molecular mechanisms that make microglia a unique immune cell population within the healthy CNS as well as under inflammatory, neurodegenerative and tumorigenic processes.

Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038971351 9783038971368 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: XII, 430 Language: Englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-27 16:11:04
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Over the last few years, polyphenol has received a great deal of attention due to their potential beneficial effects on human health. Widely contained in foods commonly consumed in all populations worldwide, polyphenols represent an attractive explanation of the beneficial effects, not only of fruits and vegetables, characteristic components of healthy dietary patterns, but also of other plant-derived foods, such as tea, coffee, and cocoa, which only recently have been exploited as being beneficial for humans. In addition to the numerous biological properties, polyphenols have been indicated as being responsible for a decreased risk of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers. The book addresses original research and reviews of literature concerning polyphenol-rich foods and human health.

Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038971412 9783038971429 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: XII, 350 Language: Englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-27 16:35:29
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Over the last few years, polyphenol has received a great deal of attention due to their potential beneficial effects on human health. Widely contained in foods commonly consumed in all populations worldwide, polyphenols represent an attractive explanation of the beneficial effects, not only of fruits and vegetables, characteristic components of healthy dietary patterns, but also of other plant-derived foods, such as tea, coffee, and cocoa, which only recently have been exploited as being beneficial for humans. In addition to the numerous biological properties, polyphenols have been indicated as being responsible for a decreased risk of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers. The book addresses original research and reviews of literature concerning polyphenol-rich foods and human health.

Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038971436 9783038971443 Year: Volume: 3 Pages: XII, 344 Language: Englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-27 16:54:12
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Over the last few years, polyphenol has received a great deal of attention due to their potential beneficial effects on human health. Widely contained in foods commonly consumed in all populations worldwide, polyphenols represent an attractive explanation of the beneficial effects, not only of fruits and vegetables, characteristic components of healthy dietary patterns, but also of other plant-derived foods, such as tea, coffee, and cocoa, which only recently have been exploited as being beneficial for humans. In addition to the numerous biological properties, polyphenols have been indicated as being responsible for a decreased risk of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers. The book addresses original research and reviews of literature concerning polyphenol-rich foods and human health.

Neuro-Immune Interactions in Inflammation and Autoimmunity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455331 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-533-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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The nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of immunity and inflammation. On the other hand unbalanced immune responses in inflammatory and autoimmune conditions may have a deleterious impact on neuronal integrity and brain function.Recent studies have characterized neural pathways communicating peripheral inflammatory signals to the CNS, and brain- and spinal cord-derived circuitries controlling various innate and adaptive immune responses and inflammation. A prototypical neural reflex circuit that regulates immunity and inflammation is the vagus nerve-based “inflammatory reflex”. Ongoing research has revealed cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these neural circuits and indicated new therapeutic approaches in inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Pharmacological and bioelectronic modulation of neural circuitry has been successfully explored in preclinical settings of sepsis, arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity-driven disorders, diabetes and other diseases. These studies paved the way to successful clinical trials with bioelectronic neuronal modulation in rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease.Dysregulated release of cytokines and other inflammatory molecules may have a severe impact on brain function. Brain inflammation (neuroinflammation), imbalances in brain neuronal integrity and neurotransmitter systems, and cognitive impairment are characteristic features of post-operative conditions, sepsis, liver diseases, diabetes and other disorders characterized by immune and metabolic dysregulation. Derangements in cytokine release also play a pivotal role in depression. Characteristic brain reactive antibodies in autoimmune conditions, including systemic lupus erythematosus and neuromyelitis optica, significantly contribute to brain pathology and cognitive impairment. These studies, and the simultaneous characterization of neuro-protective cytokines, identified new therapeutic approaches for treating neurological complications in inflammatory and autoimmune disorders.This Frontiers Research Topic is a forum for publishing research findings and methodological and conceptual advances at the intersection of immunology and neuroscience. We hope that presenting new insight into bi-directional neuro-immune communication in inflammation and autoimmunity will foster further collaborations and facilitate the development of new efficient therapeutic strategies.

Metabolically Healthy Obesity

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ISBN: 9783038426868 9783038426875 Year: Pages: 206
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-24 14:06:23
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Accumulating evidence suggests that not all obese subjects are at increased cardiometabolic risk and that the “metabolically healthy obese” phenotype may exist in the absence of metabolic abnormalities. Limited data regards the determinants of metabolically healthy obesity exist, particularly in relation to genetics, dietary and lifestyle behaviours. In light of the current obesity epidemic, it is clear that current “one size fits all” approaches to tackle obesity are largely unsuccessful. Whether dietary, lifestyle and/or therapeutic interventions, based on stratification of obese individuals according to their metabolic health phenotype, are more effective remains to be seen, with limited and conflicting data available. This book includes original research articles and reviews of the scientific literature that contribute to our understanding of the role of clinical, biological, genetic, and environmental factors in metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity.

Wound Repair and Regeneration

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ISBN: 9783038427674 9783038427681 Year: Pages: 302 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-26 15:46:58
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Wounds are a largely unrecognized, spiraling epidemic that affect millions of people world-wide. They are complex and involve temporal and spatial involvement of many different cell types and tissue processes. Recent advances in our understanding of wound repair and regeneration, as well as the many novel and exciting approaches aimed at healing chronic/acute wounds and reducing scar formation, make this a pertinent time for a Special Issue aimed at overviewing this important field. The goal of this book is to provide a summary of the field, describe its impact, as well as introduce the recent advances in understanding the mechanisms that underpin wound healing and scar formation. The articles include in this book highlight new developments in therapeutic approaches for wound repair including the use of nanomedicine and biomaterials to deliver cells and/or drugs to promote healing. Cellular responses that underpin angiogenesis, inflammation, proliferation and remodeling, as well as advances in cytoskeletal interactions in keratinocytes and fibroblast cell functions. Wound remodeling and scar formation including the roles of growth factors, cytokines and stem cells are included.

Vitamin C: Current Concepts in Human Physiology

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ISBN: 9783038972945 9783038972952 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-295-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-05 12:11:11
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.[Vitamin C is synthesized by almost all animals. However, for humans, it is a vitamin that needs constant replenishment in the diet. While its role as an anti-oxidant and for preventing scurvy have been known for a long time, novel functions and unrecognized associations continue to be identified for this enigmatic molecule. In the past decade, new details have emerged regarding differences in its uptake by oral and intravenous modes. While vitamin C deficiency remains largely unknown and poorly addressed in many segments of the population, novel pharmacological roles for high-dose, intravenous vitamin C in many disease states have now been postulated and investigated. This has shifted its role in health and disease from the long-perceived notion as merely a vitamin and an anti-oxidant to a pleiotropic molecule with a broad anti-inflammatory, epigenetic, and anti-cancer profile.This Special Issue comprises original research papers and reviews on vitamin C metabolism and function that relate to the following topics: understanding its role in the modulation of inflammation and immunity, therapeutic applications and safety of pharmacological ascorbate in disease, and the emerging role of vitamin C as a pleiotropic modulator of critical care illness and cancer.]

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2018 (16)