Search results: Found 13

Listing 1 - 10 of 13 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Engineering Rumen Metabolic Pathways: Where We Are, and Where Are We Heading

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454266 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-426-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Ruminants were domesticated in the Middle East about 10,000 years ago and have since become an inseparable part of human diet, society, and culture. Ruminants can transform inedible plant fiber and non-protein nitrogen into meat, milk, wool and traction, thus allowing human utilization of non-tillable land and industrial by-products. The nutritional flexibility of ruminants is conferred by the rumen´s complex microbial community.Driven by rising income and population growth in emergent economies, the global demand for livestock products, including milk and meat from ruminants, has been increasingly growing, and is predicted to continue growing in the next few decades. The increase in production necessary to satisfy this rising demand is putting much pressure on already dwindling natural resources. There are also concerns about the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide, potent greenhouse gases associated to ruminant production. The need to make ruminant production more efficient in the use of natural resources poses a big challenge to ruminant science, and within it, rumen microbiology. Recent years have seen important advances in basic and applied rumen microbiology and biochemistry. The knowledge generated has significant implications for the efficiency and sustainability of ruminant production and the quality of ruminant products for human health. The present compilation is an update of recent advances in rumen microbiology and ruminant digestion and fermentation, including original research, reviews, and hypothesis and theory articles. We hope that the experimental results, discussion, models and ideas presented herein are useful to foster future research contributing to sustainable ruminant production.

Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism in Canada: The Current Landscape

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038427971 9783038427988 Year: Pages: VIII, 302 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-798-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-06 13:44:18
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Canadian Pharmaceutical Scientists have a rich history of ground-breaking research in pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism undertaken throughout its Pharmacy and Medical Schools and within the Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry. The principle of drug Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME) is the foundational basis of rationale drug-design, and pharmacotherapy. The study of ADME and its descriptive quantitative analysis is the basis of pharmacokinetics. Pharmacokinetics is fundamental in the development of a new chemical entity into a marketable product and is essential in understanding the bioavailability, bioequivalence and biosimilarities of drugs. Pharmacokinetics and drug development studies facilitate an understanding of organ-based functionality. Population pharmacokinetic variability and the modeling of drug concentrations has significant utility in translating individual response in a target patient population.This special issue serves to highlight and capture the contemporary progress and current landscape of pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism within the prevailing Canadian context. We invite articles on all aspects of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism studies highlighting the world-class research currently undertaken in Canada for this special issue.

Metabolic Adaptation to Cell Growth and Proliferation in Normal and Pathological Conditions

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454846 Year: Pages: 70 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-484-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Proliferating cells must adapt their metabolism to fulfill the increased requirements for energy demands and biosynthetic intermediates. This adaptation is particularly relevant in cancer, where sustained rapid proliferation combined with the harsh conditions of the tumor microenvironment represent a major metabolic challenge. Noteworthy, metabolic reprogramming is now considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. However, the one size fits all rarely applies to the metabolic rewiring occurring in cancer cells, which ultimately depends on the combination of several factors such as the tumor’s origin, the specific genetic alterations and the surrounding microenvironment. In the present Research Topic, we compile a series of articles that discuss different metabolic adaptations that proliferating cells undergo to sustain growth and division, as well as the potential therapeutic window to treat certain pathologies, with a special focus on cancer.

Nutrition and Cancer

Author:
ISBN: 9783038428916 9783038428923 Year: Pages: VIII, 206 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Oncology --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:04:15
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The development and treatment of cancer presents a complex interaction between tumor and host. Provision of nutrients not only enables the maintenance of nutritional status, but also provides substrates and signals for immunity, tumor metabolism and protection of the host from treatment toxicities. Fat is one dietary element that has been explored for its role in cancer development. While the bulk of these studies have been observational or experimental, the evidence assembled suggests that dietary lipids behave uniquely to prevent or promote cancers. An additional aspect of cancer development is the role of adipose tissue as a source of, and a responder to, inflammatory signals that may be involved in tumor development. This Special Issue of Nutrients focuses on fat and cancer. The contributors to this Special Issue are well-recognized leaders in the field of cancer and have unique areas of focus including metabolism, immunology, biochemistry, epidemiology and nutrition. Each contribution highlights the latest research in these areas and what is known about fat and cancer with topics ranging from diet and cancer prevention, mechanisms of n-3 fatty acids on tumor development and the role of adipose tissue in cancer development and progression.

B-Vitamins and One-Carbon Metabolism

Author:
ISBN: 9783038429739 9783038429746 Year: Pages: XII, 390 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-26 13:22:55
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and riboflavin play a key role as coenzymes in one-carbon metabolism which, in turn, is essential for a broad range of fundamental physiological processes, including RNA and DNA synthesis, cell division, tissue growth and methylation. Deficiencies or imbalance of B-vitamins, as well as genetic polymorphisms and environmental factors, are shown to disturb the normal function of one-carbon metabolism with adverse effects on human health. Although a vast volume of research has already been conducted in this area, there are still significant gaps in our knowledge that require further investigations. This Special Issue of Nutrients invited submission of manuscripts, original research or reviews of the scientific literature, focused on novel findings in relation to B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolism in terms of: metabolic roles and molecular mechanisms; gene–nutrient interactions; fetal growth and programing; risk of disease (birth defects and pregnancy related conditions, cancer, cardiovascular disease and hypertension, neuropsychiatric disease, osteoporosis); health effects of B-vitamin supplementation and food fortification.

DHA for Optimal Health

Author:
ISBN: 9783038429715 9783038429722 Year: Pages: X, 276 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-26 16:08:39
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled "DHA for Optimal Health", consists of evidence-based original research or reviews of the scientific literature. Manuscripts focus on the evidence that underpins dietary requirements throughout the lifespan (from in-utero to the elderly) for optimal brain function and/or prevention (or treatment) of disease.

Role of Protein-Protein Interactions in Metabolism: Genetics, Structure, Function

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453856 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-385-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Genetic variations may change the structure and function of individual proteins as well as affect their interactions with other proteins and thereby impact metabolic processes dependent on protein-protein interactions. For example, cytochrome P450 proteins, which metabolize a vast array of drugs, steroids and other xenobiotics, are dependent on interactions with redox and allosteric partner proteins for their localization, stability, (catalytic) function and metabolic diversity (reactions). Genetic variations may impact such interactions by changing the splicing and/or amino acid sequence which in turn may impact protein topology, localization, post translational modifications and three dimensional structure. More generally, research on single gene defects and their role in disease, as well as recent large scale sequencing studies suggest that a large number of genetic variations may contribute to disease not only by affecting gene function or expression but also by modulating complex protein interaction networks.The aim of this research topic is to bring together researchers working in the area of drug, steroid and xenobiotic metabolism who are studying protein-protein interactions, to describe their recent advances in the field. We are aiming for a comprehensive analysis of the subject from different approaches including genetics, proteomics, transcriptomics, structural biology, biochemistry and pharmacology. Of particular interest are papers dealing with translational research describing the role of novel genetic variations altering protein-protein interaction. Authors may submit original articles, reviews and opinion or hypothesis papers dealing with the role of protein-protein interactions in health and disease.

Role of Protein-Protein Interactions in Metabolism: Genetics, Structure, Function, 2nd Edition

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454914 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-491-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Genetic variations may change the structure and function of individual proteins as well as affect their interactions with other proteins and thereby impact metabolic processes dependent on protein-protein interactions. For example, cytochrome P450 proteins, which metabolize a vast array of drugs, steroids and other xenobiotics, are dependent on interactions with redox and allosteric partner proteins for their localization, stability, (catalytic) function and metabolic diversity (reactions). Genetic variations may impact such interactions by changing the splicing and/or amino acid sequence which in turn may impact protein topology, localization, post translational modifications and three dimensional structure. More generally, research on single gene defects and their role in disease, as well as recent large scale sequencing studies suggest that a large number of genetic variations may contribute to disease not only by affecting gene function or expression but also by modulating complex protein interaction networks. The aim of this research topic is to bring together researchers working in the area of drug, steroid and xenobiotic metabolism who are studying protein-protein interactions, to describe their recent advances in the field. We are aiming for a comprehensive analysis of the subject from different approaches including genetics, proteomics, transcriptomics, structural biology, biochemistry and pharmacology. Of particular interest are papers dealing with translational research describing the role of novel genetic variations altering protein-protein interaction. Authors may submit original articles, reviews and opinion or hypothesis papers dealing with the role of protein-protein interactions in health and disease. Potential topics include, but are not limited to: • Role of protein-protein interactions in xenobiotic metabolism by cytochrome P450s and other drug metabolism enzymes.• Role of classical and novel interaction partners for cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism which may include interactions with redox partners, interactions with other P450 enzymes to form P450 dimers/multimers, P450-UGT interactions and proteins involved in posttranslational modification of P450s.• Effect of genetic variations (mutations and polymorphisms) on metabolism affected by protein-protein interactions. • Structural implications of mutations and polymorphisms on protein-protein interactions. • Functional characterization of protein-protein interactions.• Analysis of protein-protein interaction networks in health and disease.• Regulatory mechanisms governing metabolic processes based on protein-protein interactions.• Experimental approaches for identification of new protein-protein interactions including changes caused by mutations and polymorphisms.

Optimizing Exercise for the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455140 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-514-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine --- Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This eBook contains a collection of peer-reviewed original and review articles published in either Frontiers in Endocrinology or Frontiers in Physiology focused on the research topic Optimizing Exercise for the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.

Redox and Metabolic Circuits in Cancer

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456352 Year: Pages: 183 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-635-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Living cells require a constant supply of energy for the orchestration of a variety of biological processes in fluctuating environmental conditions. In heterotrophic organisms, energy mainly derives from the oxidation of carbohydrates and lipids, whose chemical bonds breakdown allows electrons to generate ATP and to provide reducing equivalents needed to restore the antioxidant systems and prevent from damage induced by reactive oxygen and nitric oxide (NO)-derived species (ROS and RNS). Studies of the last two decades have highlighted that cancer cells reprogram the metabolic circuitries in order to sustain their high growth rate, invade other tissues, and escape death. Therefore, this broad metabolic reorganization is mandatory for neoplastic growth, allowing the generation of adequate amounts of ATP and metabolites, as well as the optimization of redox homeostasis in the changeable environmental conditions of the tumor mass. Among these, ROS, as well as NO and RNS, which are produced at high extent in the tumor microenvironment or intracellularly, have been demonstrated acting as positive modulators of cell growth and frequently associated with malignant phenotype. Metabolic changes are also emerging as primary drivers of neoplastic onset and growth, and alterations of mitochondrial metabolism and homeostasis are emerging as pivotal in driving tumorigenesis.Targeting the metabolic rewiring, as well as affecting the balance between production and scavenging of ROS and NO-derived species, which underpin cancer growth, opens the possibility of finding selective and effective anti-neoplastic approaches, and new compounds affecting metabolic and/or redox adaptation of cancer cells are emerging as promising chemotherapeutic tools.In this Research Topic we have elaborated on all these aspects and provided our contribution to this increasingly growing field of research with new results, opinions and general overviews about the extraordinary plasticity of cancer cells to change metabolism and redox homeostasis in order to overcome the adverse conditions and sustain their “individualistic” behavior under a teleonomic viewpoint.

Listing 1 - 10 of 13 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA (8)

MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (5)


License

CC by (8)

CC by-nc-nd (5)


Language

english (13)


Year
From To Submit

2018 (13)