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Executive Function(s): Conductor, Orchestra or Symphony? Towards a Trans-Disciplinary Unification of Theory and Practice Across Development, in Normal and Atypical Groups

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455553 Year: Pages: 245 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-555-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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There are several theories of executive function(s) that tend to share some theoretical overlap yet are also conceptually distinct, each bolstered by empirical data (Norman and Shallice, 1986; Shallice & Burgess, 1991; Stuss and Alexander, 2007; Burgess, Gilbert, & Dumentheil, 2007; Burgess & Shallice, 1996; Miyake et al., 2000). The notion that executive processes are supervisory, and most in demand in novel situations was an early conceptualization of executive function that has been adapted and refined over time (Norman & Shallice, 1986; Shallice, 2001; Burgess, Gilbert & Dumentheil, 2007). Presently there is general consensus that executive functions are multi-componential (Shallice, 2001), and are supervisory only in the sense that attention in one form or another is key to the co-ordination of other hierarchically organized ‘lower’ cognitive processes. Attention in this sense is defined as (i) independent but interrelated attentional control processes (Stuss & Alexander, 2007); (ii) automatic orientation towards stimuli in the environment or internally–driven thought (Burgess, Gilbert & Dumontheil, 2007); (iii) the automatically generated interface between tacit processes and strategic conscious thought (Barker, Andrade, Romanowski, Morton and Wasti, 2006; Morton and Barker, 2010); and (iv) distinct but interrelated executive processes that maintain, update and switch across different sources of information (Miyake et al., 2000).


One problem is that executive dysfunction or dysexecutive syndrome (Baddeley & Wilson, 1988) after brain injury typically produces a constellation of deficits across social, cognate, emotional and motivational domains that rarely map neatly onto theoretical frameworks (Barker, Andrade & Romanowski, 2004). As a consequence there is debate that conceptual theories of executive function do not always correspond well to the clinical picture (Manchester, Priestley & Jackson, 2004). Several studies have reported cases of individuals with frontal lobe pathology and impaired daily functioning despite having little detectable impairment on traditional tests of executive function (Shallice & Burgess, 1991; Eslinger & Damasio, 1985; Barker, Andrade & Romanowski, 2004; Andrés & Van der Linden, 2002; Chevignard et al., 2000; Cripe, 1998; Fortin, Godbout & Braun, 2003). There is also some suggestion that weak ecological validity limits predictive and clinical utility of many traditional measures of executive function (Burgess et al, 2006; Lamberts, Evans & Spikman, 2010; Barker, Morton, Morrison, McGuire, 2011). Complete elimination of environmental confounds runs the risk of generating results that cannot be generalized beyond constrained circumstances of the test environment (Barker, Andrade & Romanowski, 2004). Several researchers have concluded that a new approach is needed that is mindful of the needs of the clinician yet also informed by the academic debate and progress within the discipline (McFarquhar & Barker, 2012; Burgess et al., 2006). Finally, translational issues also confound executive function research across different disciplines (psychiatry, cognitive science, and developmental psychology) and across typically developing and clinical populations (including Autism Spectrum Disorders, Head Injury and Schizophrenia – Blakemore & Choudhury, 2006; Taylor, Barker, Heavey & McHale, 2013). Consequently, there is a need for unification of executive function approaches across disciplines and populations and narrowing of the conceptual gap between theoretical positions, clinical symptoms and measurement.

Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783038429999 9783038970002 Year: Pages: X, 256 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-04 13:00:08
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Carbohydrate metabolism is a fundamental aspect of health and a crucial function in a variety of species, including humans. A primary disfunction in major global diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, is dysregulation of thecarbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, certain disease outcomes may be impacted by the amount and type of dietary carbohydrates consumed. Finally, carbohydrate obtainability is essential for optimal performance and endurance during sporting events. This book collates articles that either describe original research, or review the scientific literature on the topic of carbohydrate metabolism in health and disease. .

Sport and Exercise Science

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ISBN: 9789535137948 9789535137955 9789535140894 Year: Pages: 124 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69756 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Professional and semiprofessional sports as well as excessive amateur exercise inevitably lead to some degree of musculoskeletal injury once in a sportsman's career. Some injuries are represented as chronic injuries, which can result in irreversible long-term tissue changes and deformities. The subject of this book is to represent the up-to-date knowledge about etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic injuries or sport-related long-term changes in locomotor system.

Low Back Pain: Recent Advances and Perspectives

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ISBN: 9783038426578 9783038426561 Year: Pages: 218 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-12 11:29:42
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This text will provide the most recent knowledge and advances in the area of chronic low back pain. The articles will range from topics such as the growing epidemic of chronic low back pain, to intervention for it, as well as specific biopsychosocial characteristics that can be used in its assessment, treatment, and outcomes monitoring.

Brain-Mind-Body Practice and Health

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453665 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-366-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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It is acknowledged that practice could induce rapid change or reorganization of the brain’s cellular or neural networks as well as behaviors. Notably, practice relevant to mental or physical approach attracted great attention in this decade. It highlights profound significance both for human evolvement and individual development. Specifically, acquiring fine motor skills is a crucial premise for human being to evolve to modern human by using tools in one side. In the other side, numerous evidences indicated that motor learning involved in limb and trunks promotes the development of individual brain in anatomy and functions. Hence, motor learning is also tightly associated with developmental plasticity. These studies on brain-mind-body practice illuminate a promising way in promoting human brain health. This editorial covers wide range of brain-mind-body practice forms to summarize recent new findings and development from behavioral, physiological, neurobiological and psychological science approaches. In this research topic, we addressed recent findings from theoretical as well as experimental perspective including contributions under the following three headings: 1) intervention studies to investigate the positive effect of brain-mind-body practice on cognition and relevant brain mechanism. The intervention pattern consisted of short-term practice ranging from few hours to several weeks; 2) cross-sectional studies using expert-novice paradigm to explore the behavioral and neural system change induced by extensive brain-mind-body practice; 3) the mediators influence the relationship between practice and health outcomes and 4) new viewpoints on brain-mind-body practice from theoretical perspectives. Here we briefly highlight these articles aiming to provide a deep understanding for the association between practice, plasticity and health for readers. Additionally, it offers new insights for developing possible practice interventions for clinical treatment of neurological dysfunction or disorders.

Mental Health Challenges in Elite Sport: Balancing Risk with Reward

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453832 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-383-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Elite sport typically provides obvious rewards in terms of recognition, finance and acclaim for athletic performance. Increasingly, we are becoming aware of the risks that elite athletes, their entourage, including families, sport-science support team and coaches are exposed to. Twelve original articles, seven commentaries and a corrigendum, are structured in a five chapter format. Chapter 1, comprising the Editorial is titled “An Overview of Mental Health in Elite Sport: Changing the Play Book” to reflect the advocacy role of this article. Chapter 2 (“Finding the Sweet Spot”) amplifies the voice of key stakeholders across three qualitative studies with three additional commentaries. Quantitative evidence is presented in Chapter 3 which has the sub-title the “State of Play.” Chapter 4, entitled the “Field of Play” includes three original publications which present contrasting conceptual approaches to guide researchers in hypothesis generation, formulation and implementation science. Finally, in Chapter 5, “Seeing the Ball Early” prospective perspectives are provided in three publications reinforced by two commentaries. The future thinking ideas includes the use of virtual reality training, a broadening of the concept of mental health literacy, tackling stigma and focusing on the potential positive effect of the natural environment on well-being and recovery.To date the research topic has generated widespread in the field. For example, several articles have generated an Altmetric score above 40 with one publication meriting an Altmetric score of 102. We envisage that the impact of this e-book will not simply be measured in citations, views, downloads nor social media impact, but in the discourse that emerges from this collection of contributions from a combined total of 53 authors from across three continents. It is our hope that this e-book, providing a snapshot of global challenges for elite athletes mental health and well-being, becomes a touchstone for researchers and practitioners in the field.

19 Samhandling During Crisis Work (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch19 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"Samhandling is considered as a key solution when asymmetry occurs. An
expectation of seamless samhandling can be a special challenge to High Reliability
Organizations
which have mechanistic traditions in common, i.e. an assumption of
linearity and routine-based work. In this chapter, a model to operationalize samhandling
is presented. This conceptual study is based on observational data from an
inter-organizational exercise. A full-scale exercise of a train accident on the Öresund
Bridge between Sweden and Denmark was observed. The overall goal of the exercise
was to effectively solve the situation. However, different routines contributed to
confusion and misunderstandings in the meeting on how to act. The exercise was
dominated by a focus on linearity within the internal organizations, which hindered
samhandling. In order to conceptualize samhandling, a three-level model is presented.
It consists of “sequential samhandling”, i.e. a simplified, assembly-line type work
process, “parallel samhandling”, i.e. carrying out tasks simultaneously, and “synchronous
samhandling”, i.e. tasks performed at the same time in a spontaneous and natural
way. A three-level samhandling model such as the one presented can be a useful
tool for managing disasters."

Cognitive and Brain Plasticity Induced by Physical Exercise, Cognitive Training, Video Games and Combined Interventions

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455072 Year: Pages: 646 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-507-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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The premise of neuroplasticity on enhancing cognitive functioning among healthy as well as cognitively impaired individuals across the lifespan, and the potential of harnessing these processes to prevent cognitive decline attract substantial scientific and public interest. Indeed, the systematic evidence base for cognitive training, video games, physical exercise and other forms of brain stimulation such as entrain brain activity is growing rapidly. This Research Topic (RT) focused on recent research conducted in the field of cognitive and brain plasticity induced by physical activity, different types of cognitive training, including computerized interventions, learning therapy, video games, and combined intervention approaches as well as other forms of brain stimulation that target brain activity, including electroencephalography and neurofeedback. It contains 49 contributions to the topic, including Original Research articles (37), Clinical Trials (2), Reviews (5), Mini Reviews (2), Hypothesis and Theory (1), and Corrections (2).

Optimizing Exercise for the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455140 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-514-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine --- Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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This eBook contains a collection of peer-reviewed original and review articles published in either Frontiers in Endocrinology or Frontiers in Physiology focused on the research topic Optimizing Exercise for the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.

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