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A Demographic Perspective on Gender, Family and Health in Europe

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ISBN: 9783319723556 9783319723563 Year: Pages: 303 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-72356-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Sociology --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-29 10:50:58
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This open access book examines the triangle between family, gender, and health in Europe from a demographic perspective. It helps to understand patterns and trends in each of the three components separately, as well as their interdependencies. It overcomes the widely observable specialization in demographic research, which usually involves researchers studying either family or fertility processes or focusing on health and mortality.

Peer Review, Peer Education, and Modeling in the Practice of Clinical Ethics Consultation: The Zadeh Project

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ISBN: 9783319909554 Year: Pages: 228 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-90955-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Philosophy --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:15
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This open access book about the Zadeh Project demonstrates and explores a core question in clinical ethics: how can ethics consultants be accountable in the face of a robust plurality of ethical standpoints, especially those that underwrite practices and methods for doing ethics consultation as well as those viewpoints and values encountered in daily clinical ethics practice? Underscoring this question is the recognition that the field of clinical ethics consultation has arrived at a crucial point in its maturation. Many efforts are underway to more formally “professionalize” the field, with most aimed toward stabilizing a specific set of institutional considerations. Stretched between these institutional and practical initiatives resides a crucial set of of ethical considerations, chief among them the meaning and scope of responsibility for clinical ethics consultants. Developed around a long-form case scenario, the Zadeh Project provides a multi-layered series of “peer-reviews”: critique of the actions of the case scenario’s ethics consultant; reflection on clinical ethics method; examination of the many ways that commitments to method and practice can, and do, intersect, overlap, and alter one another. The design and format of this book thus models a key element for clinical ethics practice: the need and ability to provide careful and thoughtful explanation of core moral considerations that emerge among diverse standpoints. Specifically designed for those studying to become and those who are ethics consultants, this book, with its innovative and multi-layered approach, allows readers to share a peer-review-like experience that shows accountability to be what it is, an ethical, not merely procedural or administrative, undertaking.

Educating the Global Workforce for Public Health

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454471 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-447-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Good quality management of the health system demands a critical mass of health professionals with sound technical knowledge. The education that produces a workforce of appropriate size and skills is often a challenge in the delivery of quality health services. Incidentally, health professionals’ education has not kept pace with the new emerging challenges. Recent globalization of health has further led to international migration of health professionals, thereby leading to cross-border recognition of health workers with an appropriate skill-mix, knowledge, and competence. The Lancet Commission Report of 2010 highlighted the need to develop a common strategy at a global level for postgraduate medical, nursing, and public health education that reaches beyond the confines of national borders and the silos of individual professions. This vision would require a series of instructional and institutional reforms, which should be guided by two proposed outcomes: transformative learning and interdependence in education. The purpose of this Research Topic is to increase the shared understanding of the current status of the education of the health workforce around the globe, particularly those working in the public health sector. With this foundation, further research and evaluation studies can then be done with a perspective that addresses global workforce issues impacting access, prevention, and care.

Global Health Collaboration: Challenges and Lessons

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Public Health ISSN: 2192-3698 ISBN: 9783319776842 9783319776859 Year: Pages: 107 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-77685-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: Pennsylvania State University
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-28 18:09:41
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This stimulating open access volume details the innovative work of the Pan Institution Network for Global Health in creating collaborative research-based answers to large-scale health issues. Equitable partnerships among member universities representing North America, Africa, Asia, and Europe reverse standard cross-national dynamics to develop locally relevant responses to health challenges as well as their underlying disparities. Case studies focusing on multiple morbidities and effects of urbanization on health illustrate open dialogue in addressing HIV, maternal/child health, diabetes, and other major concerns. These instructive examples model collaborations between global North and South as meaningful steps toward the emerging global future of public health.Included in the coverage: Building sustainable networks: introducing the Pan Institution Network for Global Health Fostering dialogues in global health education: a graduate and undergraduate approach Provider workload and multiple morbidities in the Caribbean and South Africa Project Redemption: conducting research with informal workers in New York City Partnership and collaboration in global health: valuing reciprocityGlobal Health Collaboration will interest faculty working within the field of global health; scholars within public health, health policy, and cognate disciplines; as well as administrators looking to develop international university partnerships around global health and graduate students in the areas of global health, health administration, and public health and related social sciences (e.g., sociology, anthropology, demography).

Computers and Games for Mental Health and Well-Being

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454969 Year: Pages: 311 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-496-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Recent years have seen important developments in the computer and game industry, including the emergence of the concept of serious games. It is hypothesized that tools such as games, virtual reality, or applications for smartphones may foster learning, enhance motivation, promote behavioral change, support psychotherapy, favor empowerment, and improve some cognitive functions. Computers and games may create supports for training or help people with cognitive, emotional, or behavioral change. Games take various formats, from board games to informatics to games with interactive rules of play. Similarly, computer tools may vary widely in format, from self-help or assisted computerized training to virtual reality or applications for smartphones. Some tools that may be helpful for mental health were specifically designed for that goal, whereas others were not. Gamification of computer-related products and games with a numeric format tend to reduce the gap between games and computers tools and increase the conceptual synergy in such fields. Games and computer design share an opportunity for creativity and innovation to help create, specifically design, and assess preventive or therapeutic tools. Computers and games share a design conception that allows innovative approaches to overcome barriers of the real world by creating their own rules. Yet, despite the potential interest in such tools to improve treatment of mental disorders and to help prevent them, the field remains understudied and information is under-disseminated in clinical practice. Some studies have shown, however, that there is potential interest and acceptability of tools that support various vehicles, rationales, objectives, and formats. These tools include traditional games (e.g., chess games), popular electronic games, board games, computer-based interventions specifically designed for psychotherapy or cognitive training, virtual reality, apps for smartphones, and so forth. Computers and games may offer a true opportunity to develop, assess, and disseminate new prevention and treatment tools for mental health and well-being. Currently, there is a strong need for state-of-the-art information to answer questions such as the following: Why develop such tools for mental health and well-being? What are the potential additions to traditional treatments? What are the best strategies or formats to improve the possible impact of these tools? Are such tools useful as a first treatment step? What is the potential of a hybrid model of care that combines traditional approaches with games and/or computers as tools? What games and applications have already been designed and studied? What is the evidence from previous studies? How can such tools be successfully designed for mental health and well-being? What is rewarding or attractive for patients in using such treatments? What are the worldwide developments in the field? Are some protocols under development? What are the barriers and challenges related to such developments? How can these tools be assessed, and how can the way that they work, and for whom, be measured? Are the potential benefits of such products specific, or can these additions be attributed to nonspecific factors? What are the users’ views on such tools? What are the possible links between such tools and social networks? Is there a gap between evidence-based results and market development? Are there any quality challenges? What future developments and studies are needed in the field?

International Partnerships for Strengthening Health Care Workforce Capacity: Models of Collaborative Education

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455157 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-515-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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A critical problem in resource-scarce countries across the globe is the shortage of appropriately trained health care providers. According to the World Health Organization, the current global health workforce shortage of 7.2 million providers is estimated to increase to 12.9 million by 2035. This disproportionately affects resource-scarce countries, denying basic health care to millions and limiting access to life-saving treatments. Due to limited resources in these countries, not enough health professionals receive training, few have the opportunity for continuing education, and the ability to develop or implement educational programs and curricula is constrained. Additionally, many existing providers choose to emigrate in pursuit of professional advancement opportunities, contributing to the overall shortage of qualified health care providers in these environments. Efforts to strengthen health workforce capacity not only increases access, safety and availability of care, but is critical to building resilient health systems capable of caring for the world’s neediest populations. This requires not only cultivating new health care providers, but also providing ongoing professional development to retain and support current providers, advancing the level of practice in accordance with current clinical science, cultivating educators, and enhancing training curricula. It is critical also to contribute to the limited body of research documenting the effectiveness and impact of various models of collaborative education and partnership to improve health worker training and retention. This Research Topic examines strategies for building health workforce capacity through the prism of educational partnerships, offering significant examples of effective models of international collaborative education as well as insight and guidance on the structure and operation of successful global partnerships. Collectively, the 31 articles accepted and included in this eBook represent a diversity of health professions and geographies across academic, non-governmental organizations and other global partnership forms. The published manuscripts highlight various elements of partnerships with several consistent themes emerging: capacity building, local empowerment, mutual trust and respect, long-term commitment, equity, collaboration, and the importance of integrating theory and practice, for a balance of academic and clinical development. The manuscripts provide examples of partnership and educational programs that are in the formative, early stages of implementation and others which have been sustained long term, some for decades.The following eBook is divided into two parts, with each part broken down into sections. Part I of the eBook includes 18 manuscripts that showcase long-term educational programs that strongly exemplify multiple, foundational aspects of international partnerships in education including mutual collaboration and project management, empowerment of host partners to lead and sustain programs, and capacity building. While individual manuscripts included in Part I look broadly at multiple aspects of successful, international partnerships in education, Part II manuscripts focus intently on one-two elements. Part II includes 13 articles that highlight partnership through short- rather than long-term educational initiatives as well as program development and broad academic partnerships.This Research Topic was sponsored by Health Volunteers Overseas – a United States based non-profit that collaborates with over eighty international universities and health institutions to send volunteer health professionals to low-resource countries to provide continuing education, train the trainer courses, professional support, and consultation on academic program and curricula development.

Pflegeroboter

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ISBN: 9783658226985 Year: Pages: 267 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-658-22698-5 Language: English|German
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Economics --- Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:21
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Dieses Open-Access-Buch bündelt technische, wirtschaftliche, medizinische und ethische Reflexionen über Pflegeroboter. Pflegeroboter, im Moment noch mehrheitlich Prototypen, unterstützen oder ersetzen menschliche Pflegekräfte bzw. Betreuer. Sie bringen Kranken und Alten die benötigten Medikamente und Nahrungsmittel, helfen beim Hinlegen und Aufrichten oder alarmieren den Notdienst. Vorteile von Pflegerobotern sind durchgehende Verwendbarkeit und gleichbleibende Qualität der Dienstleistung. Nachteile sind Kostenintensität (bei möglicher Amortisation) und Komplexität der Anforderungen. Unter der wissenschaftlichen Leitung von Prof. Dr. Oliver Bendel trafen sich im September 2017 Vertreter verschiedener wissenschaftlicher Disziplinen im Rahmen eines Ladenburger Diskurses der Daimler und Benz Stiftung, um über den aktuellen und künftigen Einsatz von Pflegerobotern zu sprechen und Forschungspotenziale zu identifizieren. Die Autoren gehen in ihren Beiträgen auch Fragen aus Wirtschafts-, Medizin- und Informationsethik nach: Wer trägt die Verantwortung bei einer fehlerhaften Betreuung und Versorgung durch die Maschine? Inwieweit kann diese die persönliche und informationelle Autonomie des Patienten unterstützen oder gefährden? Ist der Roboter eine Entlastung oder ein Konkurrent für Pflegekräfte? Antworten müssen von Wissenschaft und Gesellschaft gefunden werden.

Precision Public Health

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455010 Year: Pages: 149 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-501-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Precision Public Health is a new and rapidly evolving field, that examines the application of new technologies to public health policy and practice. It draws on a broad range of disciplines including genomics, spatial data, data linkage, epidemiology, health informatics, big data, predictive analytics and communications. The hope is that these new technologies will strengthen preventive health, improve access to health care, and reach disadvantaged populations in all areas of the world. But what are the downsides and what are the risks, and how can we ensure the benefits flow to those population groups most in need, rather than simply to those individuals who can afford to pay? This is the first collection of theoretical frameworks, analyses of empirical data, and case studies to be assembled on this topic, published to stimulate debate and promote collaborative work.

Keywords

public health --- precision --- technology --- data --- GIS --- equity --- ethics --- prevention --- policy

Prenatal Beginnings for Better Health

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455096 Year: Pages: 107 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-509-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics --- Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Pregnancy has significant short- and long-term health impacts for mother and child, which may lead to pediatric- and adult-onset diseases. Understanding these gestational origins of disease and currently existing platforms for prenatal care has resulted in significant advances to detect and prevent adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Existing and emerging prenatal interventions that are instituted at critical times in gestation take advantage of unique therapeutic windows and provide an opportunity to modify the risks. This research topic encompasses a variety of approaches and interventions, such as maternal screening for fetal disease, advanced fetal imaging, biomarker development, stem cell or gene therapies, and others.

Gesteuerte Gesundheit

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Book Series: Studien aus dem Max-Planck-Institut für Sozialrecht und Sozialpolitik ISBN: 9783845293257 Year: Volume: 71 Pages: 505 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5771/9783845293257 Language: German
Publisher: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-26 14:01:47
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Public health policy can contribute significantly to the improvement of an individual’s health. But how and by which means can this goal be achieved? Under the influence of behavioural economics, allegedly “mild” regulatory instruments such as incentives and nudges are increasingly being used to influence individual behaviour. However, the use of behavioural economics in public health regulation can threaten individual freedoms; the state should be required to justify such regulatory action. But is it the state’s responsibility to improve the health of the individual? In order to answer this question, this dissertation examines the rationale behind public health policy, systemises the different regulatory instruments used to influence individual health behaviour, and reveals their potential to interfere with personal freedoms. Thereafter, it sheds light on the possible justifications for such state actions.

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