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Water Challenges of an Urbanizing World

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ISBN: 9789535138938 9789535138945 9789535140498 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68339 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Global water crisis is a challenge to the security, political stability and environmental sustainability of developing nations and with climate, economically and politically, induces migrations also for the developed ones. Currently, the urban population is 54% with prospects that by the end of 2050 and 2100 66% and 80%, respectively, of the world's population will live in urban environment. Untreated water abstracted from polluted resources and destructed ecosystems as well as discharge of untreated waste water is the cause of health problems and death for millions around the globe. Competition for water is wide among agriculture, industry, power companies and recreational tourism as well as nature habitats. Climate changes are a major threat to the water resources. This book intends to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art in integrated assessment of water resource management in the urbanizing world, which is a foundation to develop society with secure water availability, food market stability and ecosystem preservation.

Aquifers - Matrix and Fluids

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ISBN: 9781789234909 9781789234916 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69070 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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The rock matrix and the fluids contained therein define the aquifer as a whole, the custodian of continuity of life on this planet Earth. Its sustainable development, equitable utilization, quality maintenance, and balanced discharge and recharge are the essential elements to ensure that the next generation receives the resource baton passed on by the current generation. Spanning across the political and regional frontiers, transboundary aquifers have the potential to provide a uniting platform to the participatory nations. The common good of water can be enhanced by synergized research, data and knowledge sharing, joint development ventures, and hazard mitigation. Covering the multifarious facets of aquifers, this book will form an essential and interesting reading for all stakeholders?researchers, engineers, academia, intelligentsia, and the common consumer.

Hydrology of Artificial and Controlled Experiments

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ISBN: 9781789235586 9781789235593 Year: Pages: 296 DOI: 10.5772/62972 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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For the incisive tests of hydrological theory, manipulation experiments can create particular conditions, plan and define boundaries and inner structures, isolate individual mechanisms, and push systems beyond the range in a PhD timescale. The goals of this book are to stimulate the approach of manipulation in promoting watershed hydrological experimentation and to try to demonstrate that the controlled and artificial experiments are the promising way of useful and effective generation of tests of new theories. This book is organized on the basis of nine different manipulation types from six countries including field lysimeter, field runoff plot, field manipulated experimental basin, field artificial catchment, laboratory river segment, laboratory pedon (rock), laboratory lysimeter, laboratory hillslope, and phytotron artificial catchment.

Desalination and Water Treatment

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ISBN: 9781789237580 9781789237597 Year: Pages: 424 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.72352 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The need for fresh water is increasing with the rapid growth of the world's population. In countries and regions with available water resources, it is necessary to ensure the health and safety of the water supply. However, in countries and regions with limited freshwater resources, priority is given to water supply plans and projects, among which the desalination strategy stands out. In the desalination process, membrane and thermal processes are used to obtain fresh water from salty water that is in abundant amounts in the sea. This book will outline valuable scientific contributions to the new desalination and water treatment technologies to obtain high quality water with low negative environmental impacts and cost. The editors would like to record their sincere thanks to the authors for their contributions.

Advances in Hydro-Meteorological Monitoring

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ISBN: 9783038429777 9783038429784 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-978-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-09 08:55:30
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Basin hydrology is related to the soil–atmosphere interaction driven by several blended processes constrained by the space–time variability of precipitation and soil moisture, along with overland flow and flood routing in natural channels. The emerging technologies for the monitoring and prediction of the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall and soil moisture over a catchment, as well as the hillslope and river runoff, are of considerable interest to predict the hydrological responses of a catchment. In this context, this Special Issue, with its eleven theoretical and applied contributions, aims to shed light on the more recent advances in ground observations and remote sensing products, as well as on the benefits resulting from the integration of technological innovation and the development of new ideas in hydrology science. To this purpose, the accepted articles, written by leading researchers in their field, are intended to present and discuss experimental analyses at the catchment scale in terms of: a) intensive measurement campaigns of soil moisture by in situ sensors, remote sensing and modelling approaches; b) discharge monitoring also for high floods, by leveraging advanced technology for ground surface velocity measurements and spaceborne observations of water surface elevation, river width and slope; c) solid precipitation-measuring methods and the selection of snow gauge stations by merging meteorological, hydrological and remote sensing datasets; d) changes in daily precipitation of different intensities over large river basins along with the identification of the space–time rainfall field for different climatic regions ; and finally e) spatial evaporation patterns in different climate regions and assessment of the dominant climate factors affecting the evaporative demand of the atmosphere. Hopefully this Special Issue provides different useful insights into advancements in emerging technologies for the monitoring of key hydrological variables and will support the design of a scalable system of operational tools leading to suitable flood mitigation measures and reliable real-time warning systems.

The Use of Remote Sensing in Hydrology

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038429098 9783038429104 Year: Pages: X, 248 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-01 11:22:11
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Remotely sensed data are nowadays commonly used for regional/global monitoring of hydrological variables including soil moisture, rainfall, water levels, flood extent, evapotranspiration or land water storage, as well as the forcing, calibration and assimilation into hydrodynamic, hydrological and hydrometeorological models. In the years to come, recent and future satellite sensors, some of them specifically designed for hydrological purposes, will provide systematic observations of hydrological parameters (e.g., surface and sub-surface storage and flux) at high spatial and temporal resolutions. This will offer new applications for the hydrological community. This book presents reviews and recent advances of general interest regarding the use of remote sensing for hydrology. The chapters are related to any hydrological reservoir (e.g., surface storage, soil moisture, groundwater, etc.) or flux (e.g., rainfall, evapotranspiration, discharge, etc.), the integration of satellite data into hydrological models, and the improvements to hydrology that can be expected from future satellite missions.

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2018 (6)