Search results: Found 8

Listing 1 - 8 of 8
Sort by
Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases

Author:
ISBN: 9783038427919 9783038427926 Year: Pages: CCCXLVIII, 18 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-27 16:16:52
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Foodborne disease like salmonellosis and toxoplasmosis are amongst the most significant causes of hospitalization in the U.S. and globally. Gastrointestinal infections alter gut microbiomes and increase permeability to toxins. Various invasions by microbial, fungal, viral and parasitic agents stimulate inflammation, a defensive mechanism of the body’s immune system. Other stimuli include environmental stimuli, oxidative stress, aging and the physiological process. A long-lasting, persistent and excessive inflammatory response is a significant risk factor for developing various chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases.Different nutritional and dietary life styles, whether poor or lacking essential nutritional elements, as well as excess intake, can result in inflammatory complications and loss of function. Nutritional deficiency is linked with several infectious and inflammatory diseases as a cause or consequence. For instance, protein deficiency was reported in orphanages to provoke microbial and fungal complications including Pneumocystis pneumonia. Similarly, protein deficiency is a tell-tale sign of several parasitic diseases. Studies indicate that nutrients, such as amino acids, oligosaccharides, and short-chain fatty acids exert inhibitory and anti-inflammatory functions. These investigations help to understand nutritional contributions to the prevention, treatment and taming of certain inflammatory and infectious diseases. Infectious and inflammatory complications go hand-in-hand with malnutrition.The purpose of this Special Issue is to publish related new, basic and translational findings and clinical trials in this area. Other investigations or review articles were sought to link infectious and inflammatory diseases with nutrients. In addition, novel diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic modalities were invited to aid the development of nutritional strategies for the treatment and/or prevention of inflammation and infection. Original reviews were of particular interest to advance our understanding of signaling pathways, and the molecular and biochemical mechanisms behind the effects of nutrients on inflammatory and infectious diseases.

Human Polyomaviruses and Papillomaviruses

Author:
ISBN: 9783038972204 9783038972211 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-221-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-21 09:25:07
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The interest in human polyomaviruses (HPyV) has seen a renaissance because of new species that have been isolated and their previously unknown association with diseases. Likewise, the increasing evidence for the association of human papillomaviruses (HPV) with oropharyngeal cancer has sparked the attention of researchers and clinicians. The Special Issue “Human Polyomaviruses and Papillomaviruses” presents studies describing the nuclear egress of BK polyomavirus mediated by the viral agnoprotein and the cellular -SNAP protein. In addition, a study examines the promoter activity of two different variants of human polyomavirus 9 in different cell lines. This Special Issue offers an interesting perspective on the epidemiology of HR-HPV in different cancers and on the mechanisms by which these viruses target host cell proteins to replicate their genome, express their genes, interfere with autophagy, and induce cancer. Other topics that are highlighted include the role of co-factors, such as smoking and co-infection, novel therapeutic strategies, and surface immunoregulatory proteins, chemokines, and cytokines as possible biomarkers to determine the stage of a tumor and to predict clinical outcomes.

The Neonatal Immune System: A Unique Host-Microbial Interface

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454037 Year: Pages: 175 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-403-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics --- Allergy and Immunology --- Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Emerging from the protective environment of the uterus, the newborn is exposed to a myriad of microbes, and quickly establishes a complex microbiome that shapes the infant’s biology in ways that are only now beginning to come to light. Among these exposures are a number of potential pathogens. The host responses to these pathogens in the neonatal period are unique, reflecting a developing immune system even with delivery at term. Preterm infants are delivered at a time when host defense mechanisms are even less developed and therefore face additional risk. As such, the organisms that cause disease in this period are different from the pathogens that are common in other age groups, or the disease they cause manifests in more severe fashion. Developmental alterations in both innate and adaptive immune responses in neonates have been documented among many cell types and pathways over the last several decades. Contemporary insights into the human immune system and methodologies that allow an “omics” approach to these questions have continued to provide new information regarding the mechanisms that underlie the human neonate as an “immunocompromised host.” This Research Topic highlights studies related to this unique host-pathogen interface. Contributions include those related to the innate or adaptive immune system of neonates, their response to microbial colonization or infection, and/or the pathogenesis of microbes causing disease in neonates.

The Role of Iron in Bacterial Pathogenesis

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456628 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-662-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The collection of articles published in this eBook represent different facets of the interactions between pathogens and their host concerning the battle for iron. Pathogens have developed different strategies to acquire iron from their host. These include the production of siderophores, heme acquisition and ferrous iron uptake.

Immunobiotics: Interactions of Beneficial Microbes with the Immune System

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453825 Year: Pages: 309 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-382-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology --- Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The term “immunobiotics” has been proposed to define microbial strains able to beneficially regulate the mucosal immune system. Research in immunobiotics has significantly evolved as researchers employed cutting-edge technologies to investigate the complex interactions of these beneficial microorganisms with the immune system. During the last decade, our understanding of immunobiotics-host interaction was profoundly transformed by the discovery of microbial molecules and host receptors involved in the modulation of gut associated immune system, as well as the systemic and distant mucosal immune systems. In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of reports describing the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in diseases such as intestinal and respiratory infections, allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, immunosuppression, and several other immune-mediated conditions. Evidence is also emerging of immunobiotics related molecules with immunomodulatory functions leading to the production of pharmabiotics, which may positively influence human or animal health. Therefore, research in immunobiotics continue to contribute not only to food but also medical and pharmaceutical fields. The compilation of research articles included in this ebook should help reader to have an overview of the recent advances in immunobiotics.

Parasite Infections: From Experimental Models to Natural Systems

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454853 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-485-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Eukaryotic parasites (including parasitic protozoans, worms and arthropods) are more complex and heterogeneous organisms than pathogenic bacteria and viruses. This notion implies different evolutionary strategies of host exploitation. Typically, parasites establish long-term infections and induce relatively little mortality, as they often limit pathological changes by modulating host cells and downregulating adverse immune responses. Their pattern of distribution tends to be endemic rather than epidemic. Despite these seemingly benign traits, parasites usually cause substantial chronic morbidity, thus constituting an enormous socioeconomic burden in humans, particularly in resource poor countries, and in livestock worldwide. Parasite-induced fitness costs are an evolutionary force that can shape populations and contribute to species diversity. Therefore, a thorough understanding of parasites and parasitic diseases requires detailed knowledge of the respective biochemical, molecular and immunological aspects as well as of population genetics, epidemiology and ecology. This Research Topic (RT) bridges disciplines to connect molecular, immunological and wildlife aspects of parasitic infections. The RT puts emphases on four groups of parasites: Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Giardia and intestinal helminths. Co-infections are also covered by the RT as they represent the most common form of parasite infections in wildlife and domestic animal populations. Within the four types of parasites the following topics are addressed: (1) Experimental models: hypothesis testing, translation and limits. (2) Critical appraisal of experimental models. (3) Natural systems: Technological advances for investigations in natural parasite-host systems and studies in natural systems. (4) The urgent need for better models and methods in natural parasite systems. Hence, the RT covers and illustrate by the means of four main parasitic infections the parasite-host system at the molecular, cellular and organismic level.

Vitamin C in Health and Disease

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038970293 9783038970309 Year: Pages: X, 288 Language: english
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Cardiovascular
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-09 11:31:26
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Vitamin C is a pivotal water soluble electron donor in nature and an essential nutrient in man. Despite its many years as a research focus, new and increasingly regulatory functions of vitamin C in human health are continually being unravelled. This improved mechanistic insight is starting to provide rationales explaining the extensive epidemiological literature that, for decades, has consistently shown strong associations between poor vitamin C status and increased morbidity and mortality.In this Special Issue, we include original research and literature reviews by experts in the field outlining the roles of vitamin C in early, daily and late life, as well as the roles of deficiency in cardiovascular disease, inflammation and cancer.

The Second Life of Natural Killer (NK) Cells

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455461 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-546-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes, now recognized as members of a larger family of “Innate lymphoid cells” (ILCs). Both murine and human NK cells are well characterized effector cells with cytotoxic as well as cytokine production ability which mainly react in response to microbial and cell stress stimuli, thus playing a central role in the defense against pathogen infection, in tumor surveillance and in regulating immune homeostasis. Despite these established concepts, our understanding of the complexity of NK cells, also in view of their developmental and functional relationship with other ILC subsets, is only recently emerging. This Research Topic highlights the recent advances in NK cell (and ILC) research in human and mouse from basic research to clinical applications.

Listing 1 - 8 of 8
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA (5)

MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (3)


License

CC by (5)

CC by-nc-nd (3)


Language

english (8)


Year
From To Submit

2018 (8)