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Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases

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ISBN: 9783038427919 9783038427926 Year: Pages: CCCXLVIII, 18 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-27 16:16:52
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Foodborne disease like salmonellosis and toxoplasmosis are amongst the most significant causes of hospitalization in the U.S. and globally. Gastrointestinal infections alter gut microbiomes and increase permeability to toxins. Various invasions by microbial, fungal, viral and parasitic agents stimulate inflammation, a defensive mechanism of the body’s immune system. Other stimuli include environmental stimuli, oxidative stress, aging and the physiological process. A long-lasting, persistent and excessive inflammatory response is a significant risk factor for developing various chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases.Different nutritional and dietary life styles, whether poor or lacking essential nutritional elements, as well as excess intake, can result in inflammatory complications and loss of function. Nutritional deficiency is linked with several infectious and inflammatory diseases as a cause or consequence. For instance, protein deficiency was reported in orphanages to provoke microbial and fungal complications including Pneumocystis pneumonia. Similarly, protein deficiency is a tell-tale sign of several parasitic diseases. Studies indicate that nutrients, such as amino acids, oligosaccharides, and short-chain fatty acids exert inhibitory and anti-inflammatory functions. These investigations help to understand nutritional contributions to the prevention, treatment and taming of certain inflammatory and infectious diseases. Infectious and inflammatory complications go hand-in-hand with malnutrition.The purpose of this Special Issue is to publish related new, basic and translational findings and clinical trials in this area. Other investigations or review articles were sought to link infectious and inflammatory diseases with nutrients. In addition, novel diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic modalities were invited to aid the development of nutritional strategies for the treatment and/or prevention of inflammation and infection. Original reviews were of particular interest to advance our understanding of signaling pathways, and the molecular and biochemical mechanisms behind the effects of nutrients on inflammatory and infectious diseases.

Current Topics in Anemia

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ISBN: 9789535137740 9789535137757 9789535140009 Year: Pages: 282 DOI: 10.5772/66061 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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This book deals with a very common condition, anemia, which might interest not only the physicians but also other healthcare professionals and researchers dealing with anemic patients. The objective of this book was to collect and compile up-to-date information from reputable researchers of different countries of the world to disseminate the latest information about the common types of anemia in some specific physiological and pathological conditions including pathophysiology and the use of algorithms as a tool to minimize the laboratory tests and accurate diagnosis of the underlying cause. In total, there are 13 chapters in this book where the authors shared their research findings and real-life experiences in managing their patients with anemia.

Pertussis - Disease, Control and Challenges

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ISBN: 9781789235289 9781789235296 Year: Pages: 88 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70021 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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In this book, we propose some approaches about interrelationships between vaccine strategies and microbial epidemiology, taking into account as reference the whooping cough, an endemic disease with significant morbidity and mortality and of indisputable importance in public health.

Chagas Disease - Basic Investigations and Challenges

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ISBN: 9781789236583 9781789236590 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69020 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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This book contains 11 chapters of significant and updated materials on what we know and what we lack and need in better understanding of Trypanosoma cruzi - a parasite that never dies - and the consequences of Chagas disease as one of the most important neglected parasitic diseases threatening the global health and wellbeing. This book is intended to increase the readers' enthusiasm to explore the four sections of the contents: Section 1 begins with biochemistry, pathophysiology, histo-immunological study, and findings to assist in the diagnosis; Section 2 further investigates the role of vector in propagation of the parasite, the intensity on epidemiology, and the severity on clinical aspects, which help us to be well perceived on the course of disease; Section 3 is seeking beyond modern medicine and what lays in the nature that helps fight against this parasite; and the last section, Section 4, deals with the impacts of public health problem and the control strategies on Chagas disease.

Tuberculosis

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ISBN: 9781789237818 9781789237825 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69823 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Tuberculosis is an ancient disease with a high incidence and mortality rate, unequally distributed worldwide. Epidemiological indicators, but also risk factors, play a key role in the natural history of the disease and need to be regulary addressed. Low and middle income countries are not prepared for appropriate response and are also the most affected. The incidence of this extrapulmonary disease is far from being clearly established. Epidemiological studies in different geographical areas will help in this field.

Leishmaniases as Re-emerging Diseases

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ISBN: 9781789841015 9781789841022 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71150 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Leishmania parasites plague the mammalian host causing high morbidity and mortality. The parasites persist in the hostile milieu, crippling its defensive arsenal. In the face of mounting resistance to an antiquated drug arsenal, new approaches are urgently desired to keep the infection at bay. Furthermore, to strengthen the leishmaniasis elimination drive, particular emphasis has to be laid on identification of new targets and vaccination strategies. This book gives a brief glimpse of the epidemiology of leishmaniasis, immune evasion, vaccination, and therapeutic modalities that may work by untangling the immunological cross-wires of pathogenic cross-talk. The Conventional treatment and its drawbacks, the prospects of phytotherapy and nanomedicines, are also discussed. The identification of drug targets with the aim of designing inhibitors is also exemplified.

Advances in HIV and AIDS Control

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ISBN: 9781789846027 9781789846034 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.72981 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The HIV epidemic has had a significant and profound impact on the world and health resources. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the risks and drivers of the epidemic. Antiretroviral drugs have relieved human suffering and prolonged life. However, access to quality management needs to scale up and be made universal. This book discusses critical issues related to the treatment of HIV infection and related co-infections and challenges in adherence and discordancy. New vaccine approaches discussed may provide the ultimate solution for eradication. Sharing knowledge from various experts in medical and basic sciences improves the quality of care for this persistent global threat. This book discusses emerging advances in HIV-AIDS management to support strategies for control and elimination.

The Good, The Bad and The Ugly: Multiple Roles of Bacteria in Human Life

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455744 Year: Pages: 518 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-574-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Bacteria are among the earliest forms of life on Earth. Notwithstanding their small size and primitive origin, bacteria still have a tremendous impact on everyday human life. Over the centuries, research into bacteria have provided and enriched the fundamental biological knowledge due to their readily measured processes and effects on higher organisms. Although molecular genetics and microbiology were among the scientific fields that have mostly benefited from the discoveries made in bacteria, our current state of knowledge has gone beyond what anyone could have ever imagined. The present Research Topic aims to cover new and exciting broad aspects of the importance of bacteria to human life, both positive and negative influences. Regulation of bacterial gene expression, replication and segregation control mechanisms, cell to cell communication via quorum sensors, and the relatively recent finding of bacterial immunity via CRISPR, have led to the development of many, and very important new tools in biotechnology and the emerging field of molecular medicine. The battle against infectious diseases has also benefited from the genetic approaches that have been developed in the quest for finding new targets and novel drugs against pathogenic bacteria. At the next level, the human microbiome project has opened up new avenues in understanding the role of bacteria in human health and wellbeing. Finally, the relationship between bacterial infections and human cancers will also be covered, a subject that is still under verification through rigorous experimental approaches. Special emphasis will be given to the bacterial accessory genome, i.e the mobilome, as the primary cause of health-threatening antimicrobial resistance and the production of toxins and virulence factors. Taking into account the evolutionary importance of horizontal gene transfer and the additional beneficial roles of certain bacterial mobile genetic elements, they help project best “the Good, the Bad and the Ugly” outline of this topic.At the time this eBook is about to be published, our Research Topic has registered nearly 55, 000 views.

Global Health Collaboration: Challenges and Lessons

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Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Public Health ISSN: 2192-3698 ISBN: 9783319776842 9783319776859 Year: Pages: 107 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-77685-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Pennsylvania State University
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-28 18:09:41
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This stimulating open access volume details the innovative work of the Pan Institution Network for Global Health in creating collaborative research-based answers to large-scale health issues. Equitable partnerships among member universities representing North America, Africa, Asia, and Europe reverse standard cross-national dynamics to develop locally relevant responses to health challenges as well as their underlying disparities. Case studies focusing on multiple morbidities and effects of urbanization on health illustrate open dialogue in addressing HIV, maternal/child health, diabetes, and other major concerns. These instructive examples model collaborations between global North and South as meaningful steps toward the emerging global future of public health.Included in the coverage: Building sustainable networks: introducing the Pan Institution Network for Global Health Fostering dialogues in global health education: a graduate and undergraduate approach Provider workload and multiple morbidities in the Caribbean and South Africa Project Redemption: conducting research with informal workers in New York City Partnership and collaboration in global health: valuing reciprocityGlobal Health Collaboration will interest faculty working within the field of global health; scholars within public health, health policy, and cognate disciplines; as well as administrators looking to develop international university partnerships around global health and graduate students in the areas of global health, health administration, and public health and related social sciences (e.g., sociology, anthropology, demography).

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