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Executive Function and Education

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455720 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-572-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Executive function is an umbrella term for various cognitive processes that are central to goal-directed behavior, thoughts, and emotions. These processes are especially important in novel or demanding situations, which require a rapid and flexible adjustment of behavior to the changing demands of the environment. The development of executive function relies on the maturation of associated brain regions as well as on stimulation in the child’s social contexts, especially the home and school. Over the past decade, the term executive function has become a buzzword in the field of education as both researchers and educators underscore the importance of skills like goal setting, planning, and organizing in academic success. Accordingly, in initiating this Research Topic and eBook our goal was to provide a forum for state-of-the-art theoretical and empirical work on this that both facilitates communication among researchers from diverse fields and provides a theoretically sound source of information for educators. The contributors to this volume, who hail from several different countries in Europe and North America, have certainly accomplished this goal in their nuanced and cutting-edge depictions of the complex links among various executive function components and educational success.

Metabolically Healthy Obesity

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ISBN: 9783038426868 9783038426875 Year: Pages: 206
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-24 14:06:23
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Accumulating evidence suggests that not all obese subjects are at increased cardiometabolic risk and that the “metabolically healthy obese” phenotype may exist in the absence of metabolic abnormalities. Limited data regards the determinants of metabolically healthy obesity exist, particularly in relation to genetics, dietary and lifestyle behaviours. In light of the current obesity epidemic, it is clear that current “one size fits all” approaches to tackle obesity are largely unsuccessful. Whether dietary, lifestyle and/or therapeutic interventions, based on stratification of obese individuals according to their metabolic health phenotype, are more effective remains to be seen, with limited and conflicting data available. This book includes original research articles and reviews of the scientific literature that contribute to our understanding of the role of clinical, biological, genetic, and environmental factors in metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity.

Brain-Mind-Body Practice and Health

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453665 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-366-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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It is acknowledged that practice could induce rapid change or reorganization of the brain’s cellular or neural networks as well as behaviors. Notably, practice relevant to mental or physical approach attracted great attention in this decade. It highlights profound significance both for human evolvement and individual development. Specifically, acquiring fine motor skills is a crucial premise for human being to evolve to modern human by using tools in one side. In the other side, numerous evidences indicated that motor learning involved in limb and trunks promotes the development of individual brain in anatomy and functions. Hence, motor learning is also tightly associated with developmental plasticity. These studies on brain-mind-body practice illuminate a promising way in promoting human brain health. This editorial covers wide range of brain-mind-body practice forms to summarize recent new findings and development from behavioral, physiological, neurobiological and psychological science approaches. In this research topic, we addressed recent findings from theoretical as well as experimental perspective including contributions under the following three headings: 1) intervention studies to investigate the positive effect of brain-mind-body practice on cognition and relevant brain mechanism. The intervention pattern consisted of short-term practice ranging from few hours to several weeks; 2) cross-sectional studies using expert-novice paradigm to explore the behavioral and neural system change induced by extensive brain-mind-body practice; 3) the mediators influence the relationship between practice and health outcomes and 4) new viewpoints on brain-mind-body practice from theoretical perspectives. Here we briefly highlight these articles aiming to provide a deep understanding for the association between practice, plasticity and health for readers. Additionally, it offers new insights for developing possible practice interventions for clinical treatment of neurological dysfunction or disorders.

Mental Illness in Children

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ISBN: 9783038428817 9783038428824 Year: Pages: XII, 128 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-08 12:43:52
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In this Special Issue of Brain Sciences, we will be discussing “Mental Illness in Children” from a range of perspectives, exploring the prevalence and recognition of mental disorders in children, the types of disorders and approaches to meeting their needs, and the complexity and severity of mental health problems in children. We look to what models of care best respond to children’s needs, the identification and management of risk, and the expertise needed to appropriately and effectively intervene when children need mental health care. We will welcome articles describing the range of issues that impact on mental disorder in children; models of intervention implemented and evaluated; new data on prevalence and nature of disorder; and critical reviews on mental health problems and vulnerability. We look forward to your valuable contribution to this Special Issue for this journal.

What Works in Conservation 2018

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: What Works in Conservation ISSN: 20594232 20594240 ISBN: 9781783744282 9781783744305 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 660 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0131 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-17 14:12:22
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What Works in Conservation has been created to provide practitioners with answers to these and many other questions about practical conservation. This book provides an assessment of the effectiveness of 1277 conservation interventions based on summarized scientific evidence. The 2018 edition contains new chapters covering practical global conservation of primates, peatlands, shrublands and heathlands, management of captive animals as well as an extended chapter on control of freshwater invasive species. Other chapters cover the global conservation of amphibians, bats, birds and forests, conservation of European farmland biodiversity and some aspects of enhancing natural pest control, enhancing soil fertility and control of freshwater invasive species. It contains key results from the summarized evidence for each conservation intervention and an assessment of the effectiveness of each by international expert panels. The accompanying website www.conservationevidence.com describes each of the studies individually, and provides full references.

Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Syndrome Management

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038428596 9783038428602 Year: Pages: VIII, 214 Language: englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-21 16:34:33
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Precision nutrition is an emerging concept encompassing an integrated action considering not only the genetic/epigenetic makeup and ethnic aspects of individuals, but other personalized phenotypical features, such as family and individual clinical issues, previous diseases and therapeutic treatments, perinatal nutrition, food likes/dislikes, allergies/intolerances, lifestyle attitudes and patterns, social and cultural circumstances or religious beliefs, etc.In this context, chronic disease prevalence is a global public health problem itself, which is also accompanied by a number of complications, including insulin resistance, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, fatty liver, inflammation, oxidative status and immunocompetence disturbances, and other adverse manifestations related to metabolic syndrome, which may need individualized nutritional approaches.Therefore, the current Special Issue attempts to provide specific nutritional strategies to prevent or treat the complications associated with metabolic syndrome features concerning diabetes, vascular events, liver diseases, dyslipemia, and cancer with a precision nutrition scope.

Evidence-Based Practices to Reduce Falls and Fall-Related Injuries Among Older Adults

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456093 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-609-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Falls and fall-related injuries among older adults have emerged as serious global health concerns, which place a burden on individuals, their families, and greater society. As fall incidence rates increase alongside our globally aging population, fall-related mortality, hospitalizations, and costs are reaching never seen before heights.Because falls occur in clinical and community settings, additional efforts are needed to understand the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that cause falls among older adults; effective strategies to reduce fall-related risk; and the role of various professionals in interventions and efforts to prevent falls (e.g., nurses, physicians, physical therapists, occupational therapists, health educators, social workers, economists, policy makers).As such, this Research Topic sought articles that described interventions at the clinical, community, and/or policy level to prevent falls and related risk factors. Preference was given to articles related to multi-factorial, evidence-based interventions in clinical (e.g., hospitals, long-term care facilities, skilled nursing facilities, residential facilities) and community (e.g., senior centers, recreation facilities, faith-based organizations) settings. However, articles related to public health indicators and social determinants related to falls were also included based on their direct implications for evidence-based interventions and best practices.

Guidelines for supporting children with disabilities' play. Methodologies, tools, and contexts

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783110613445 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.1515/9783110613445 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-11 11:41:35
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Play for the sake of play, without any secondary goals, if of utmost importance for children’s wellbeing and development. In this book you’ll find guidelines to support children with disabilities’ play. Providing ready-to-use information in a lay-person language, this book is for parents, teachers, rehabilitation professionals, toy manufacturers, policy makers and all persons interested in the topic of play for children with disabilities.

Children and Companion Animals: Psychosocial, Medical, and Neurobiological Implications

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455591 Year: Pages: 90 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-559-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Children and companion animals seem to have a natural affinity towards each other. Most children desire a relationship with their own companion animals or at least demonstrate an interest to interact with animals in general. Living with companion animals or interacting with animals may have psychosocial, neurobiological, or medically relevant effects on typically developing children and juveniles as well as those with diverse and special needs.


In this eBook, we present several articles addressing the relationships between children/juveniles and animals in different countries, including Austria, Germany, Jamaica, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. Three articles discuss approaches in animal-assisted education, including animal keeping and animal assisted interventions in schools, and an experimental study investigating immediate effects of dogs on reading competence and accompanying stress reactions with cortisol and behavior. Other articles address topics involving children and their companion animals, including dog-walking by children and juveniles, risks of dog bites by the family dog, selection of pet dogs for families with a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the relationships that children with ASD have with their family cats.


The interactions between children/juveniles and animals addressed in this eBook provide new insights into some scarcely investigated themes, and underline the significance of animals in children&#39;s lives.

Community-Oriented Policing and Technological Innovations

Authors: ---
Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Policing ISSN: 2194-6213 ISBN: 9783319892931 9783319892948 Year: Pages: 131 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-89294-8 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: European Commission
Subject: Social and Public Welfare
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 15:58:56
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This Brief presents new approaches and innovative challenges to address bringing technology into community-oriented policing efforts. “Community-oriented policing” is an approach that encourages police to develop and maintain personal relationships with citizens and community organizations. By developing these partnerships, the goal is to enhance trust and legitimacy of police by the community (and vice versa), and focus on engaging the community crime prevention and detection efforts for sustainable, long-term crime reduction.The contributions to this volume emphasize how technological innovations can advance community-oriented policing goals, such as:-Strengthening community policing principles through effective and efficient tools, procedures and approaches- Accelerating communication between citizens and police forces- Early identification, timely intervention, as well as better crime reporting, identification of risks, unreported and undiscovered crime through the communityContributions to this volume were developed out of the Next Generation Community Policing (NGCP) International Conference was co-organized by nine contributing research and development projects, funded by the Horizon 2020 SECURITY Program of the European Commission. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public health, security, IT and public policy.

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