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Astrocyte - Physiology and Pathology

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ISBN: 9789535138853 9789535138860 9789535140771 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69076 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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A team of authors from prestigious academic schools contributed to draw up a project that would give a detailed account of astrocyte's morphology and physiology, examining thoroughly all the astrocyte's types; giving an accurate description of their morphology, location, function in the brain; and illustrating their physiology and pathology in terms of dealing with neurons through ""gliotransmitters,"" ionic channels, and membrane receptors expression. This book gives an overview of the crucial role of astrocytes in the physiology of the CNS and in the pathogenesis of several CNS disorders suggesting that the shift from a neurocentric view to one that incorporates astrocytes in disease models for drug discovery is a critical step in renewing drug development strategies to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

Sex Hormones in Neurodegenerative Processes and Diseases

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ISBN: 9781789230147 9781789230154 Year: Pages: 358 DOI: 10.5772/66585 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
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The book provides chapters on sex hormones and their modulation in neurodegenerative processes and pathologies, from basic molecular mechanisms, physiology, gender differences, to neuroprotection and clinical aspects for potential novel pharmacotherapy approaches. The book contains 14 chapters written by authors from various biomedical professions, from basic researchers in biology and physiology to medicine and veterinary medicine, pharmacologists, psychiatrist, etc. Chapters sum up the past and current knowledge on sex hormones, representing original new insights into their role in brain functioning, mental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. The book is written for a broad range of audience, from biomedical students to highly profiled medical specialists and biomedical researchers, helping them to expand their knowledge on sex hormones in neurodegenerative processes and opening new questions for further investigation.

Circadian Rhythm - Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms

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ISBN: 9781789233384 9781789233391 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71707 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Circadian clocks are endogenous and temperature-compensating timekeepers that provide temporal organization of biological processes in living organisms. Circadian rhythms allow living organisms to adapt to the daily light cycles associated with Earth's rotation and to anticipate and prepare for precise and regular environmental changes. This book discusses the fundamental advances of how the circadian clock regulates critical biological functions as well as the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling circadian rhythm in living organisms. It also provides new insights into and sheds new light on the current research trends and future research directions related to circadian rhythm. This book provokes interest in many readers, researchers and scientists, who can find this information useful for the advancement of their research works towards a better understanding of circadian rhythm regulatory mechanisms.

Sensory Nervous System

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ISBN: 9781789233582 9781789233599 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.5772/68128 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
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The sensory nervous system is of critical importance in our daily lives and contributes to our personal well-being and safety as well as communication with others. However, it is only when disease or injury impair its function that we fully appreciate the relevance of our sensory modalities. During the past decades, research of our senses has seen an ever-growing interest in this exciting field of study. This book provides the reader with an overview of the current state-of-the-art of research of our senses and focuses on the most important evidence-based developments in this area. This book addresses both the physiology and pathophysiology of our sensory nervous system ranging from molecular, cellular, and systems to cognitive and behavioral topics. Individual chapters focus on recent advances in specific areas of sensory systems in different model organisms and humans. All chapters represent recent contributions to the rapidly developing field of sensory science.

Autonomic Nervous System

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ISBN: 9781789841923 9781789841916 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73119 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The autonomic nervous system is one of the most important involuntary control mechanisms that primarily controls and modulates the functions of the visceral organs. The book discusses some of the specificities of the autonomic nervous system in terms of dendritic development in the sympathetic compartment, as well as a detailed description of noradrenergic groups and their key role in the modulation of all antinociceptive and autonomic responses elicited by painful or threatening situations. In the book, only those cases are mentioned that are closely related to disorders or changes of function of the autonomic nervous system. This book can evoke interest in many researchers who want to use the information for the advancement of their research towards a better understanding of the autonomic regulatory mechanisms.

Hypothalamus in Health and Diseases

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ISBN: 9781789844443 9781789844450 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69694 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The human hypothalamus, a small structure at the base of the brain, has strategic importance for the harmonic function of the human body. It controls the autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine function, circadian and circannual rhythms, somatic activities, and behavior, and is situated at the borders between the brain and the body and the brain and the soul, meeting points for mind and body. The hypothalamus is involved in a wide range of higher mental functions, including attention, learning and reinforcement of mnemonic processes, emotional control, mood stability, and cognitive-emotional interactions. It also has a role to play in behavioral disorders, panic reactions, cluster headache, gelastic epilepsy, mental deficiency, periodic disorders, depression, autism, and schizophrenia, and in a substantial number of neurodegenerative diseases. It enlarges greatly the dimensions of the hypothalamic contribution in controlling psychosomatic equilibrium and retaining internal unity of the human existence.

High-Resolution Neuroimaging - Basic Physical Principles and Clinical Applications

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ISBN: 9789535138655 9789535138662 9789535140450 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68268 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
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Dr. Ahmet Mesrur Halefoğlu mostly deals with research fields in body imaging and neuroradiology with multidetector computed tomography and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. He has served as postdoctoral research fellow at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Currently, he is working as an associate professor of radiology in Istanbul, Turkey. He has more than 50 high-impact-factor publications and has written 3 book chapters. He is a member of Turkish Society of Radiology and European Society of Radiology. During the recent years, there have been major breakthroughs in MRI due to developments in scanner technology and pulse sequencing. These important achievements have led to remarkable improvements in neuroimaging and advanced techniques, including diffusion imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, perfusion imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and functional MRI. These advanced neuroimaging techniques have enabled us to achieve invaluable insights into tissue microstructure, microvasculature, metabolism, and brain connectivity.

GABA And Glutamate - New Developments In Neurotransmission Research

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ISBN: 9789535138211 9789535138228 9789535140696 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68762 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
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This book collates the contributions of a selected number of neuroscientists that are interested in the molecular, preclinical, and clinical aspects of neurotransmission research. The seven chapters in this book address the latest research/review data related to GABA/glutamate system's organization and function, the structure of receptors, subtypes and their ligands, as well as the translational approach and clinical implications. The book offers readers a rich collection of data regarding current and future applications of GABA and glutamate neurotransmission, including promising research strategies and potential clinical benefits.

Advances in Bioremediation and Phytoremediation

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ISBN: 9789535139577 9789535139584 9789535140238 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: 10.5772/67970 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Ecology
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The pollution of soil and groundwater by harmful chemical compounds and heavy metals is becoming very serious in many countries. Although remediation is necessary as soon as possible, the performance of conventional bioremediation processes is not sufficient. This book deals with advances in bioremediation and phytoremediation processes by using excellent strains and a combination of processes. In the chapters of this book, the researchers have introduced the overall status of contamination; the characteristics of bioremediation using halobacteria, Candida yeast, and autochthonous bacteria; and phytoremediation using macrophytes. Moreover, other researchers introduced a process using biochar and electric currents, and this combination of processes and phytoremediation enhances the overall process.

Neuroplasticity - Insights of Neural Reorganization

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ISBN: 9781789231946 9781789231953 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68156 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Surgery
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This book provides comprehensive and up-to-date insights into emerging research trends on neuroplasticity with current or future treatments for neurodevelopment and neurodegenerative diseases. The authors discuss structural and functional changes associated with cortical remapping, sensory substitution, synaptic and non-synaptic compensatory plasticity due to brain damage, brain training, chronic pain, meditation, music, exercise and related states. Key features include pathogenesis, and existing and new therapies together with a pharmacological and non-pharmacological approach in clinical treatment and management. The authors are established experts that contributed significantly to a better understanding of the etiology of neuroplasticity. This book is recommended to healthcare providers, clinical scientists, students and patients.

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