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Ovarian Cancer Screening

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ISBN: 978038427162 9783038427155 Year: Pages: VI, 124 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-715-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-06 13:25:21
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Presented here are scientific reports which add considerable information to the area of early stage ovarian cancer detection and the application of this detection to ovarian cancer screening. In this volume, the following presentations are made:1) The performance of different ultrasound-based International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) strategies is analyzed to discriminate between early stage ovarian malignancy and benign abnormalities of the ovary.2) Since oophorectomy confers protection against ovarian cancer, when adjustment for oophorectomy was made, rates of ovarian cancer were substantially higher.3) The frequency of symptoms relevant to ovarian cancer was found to be more than two-hundred times higher than the occurrence of ovarian cancer and it was found that 80.1% of women expressed confidence in the symptoms they reported.4) Complications resulting from surgery performed in the Kentucky Ovarian Cancer Screening Program were infrequent and significantly fewer than reported in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening trial. Complications observed were mostly minor (93%) and were more common in cancer versus non-cancer surgery.5) Arguments in favor of serial ultrasonography as an alternative to immediate surgery are presented and illustrate the benefits of surveillance.6) Ten critical considerations for ovarian cancer screening are presented in depth, highlighting their important bearing on ovarian screening outcomes and their interpretations.7) Considerations that have psychological and behavioral impacts on individuals participating in ovarian screening suggest that a “normal” screening test result can have psychological benefits, including an increased positive effect and beliefs in the efficacy of screening.8) The efficacy of ovarian cancer screening may be higher in Asia than in Europe and the USA. Additionally, the re-analysis of PLCO screening data, when cancers presenting more than one year after screening are excluded, shows a significant survival benefit in the PLCO screening trial.9) The effect that ovarian cancer has on patients and their families is examined from the perspective of a first-year resident in Obstetrics and Gynecology.10) The 50-year history of biomarkers and ultrasound in the context of ovarian cancer indicates the importance of serial application of both biomarkers and ultrasound. Taken together, this volume provides both original data and overviews of ovarian cancer screening studies that enhance the present interpretation of this type of screening.

AR Signaling in Human Malignancies: Prostate Cancer and Beyond

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ISBN: 9783038427407 9783038427391 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-739-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-16 08:45:39
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The notion that androgens and androgen receptor (AR) signaling are the hallmarks of prostate cancer oncogenesis and disease progression is generally well accepted. What is more poorly understood is the role of AR signaling in other human malignancies. This Special Issue of Cancers initially reviews the role of AR in advanced prostate cancer, and then explores the potential importance of AR signaling in other epithelial malignancies. The first few articles focus on the use of novel AR-targeting therapies in castration-resistant prostate cancer and the mechanisms of resistance to novel antiandrogens, and they also outline the interaction between AR and other cellular pathways, including PI3 kinase signaling, transcriptional regulation, angiogenesis, stromal factors, Wnt signaling, and epigenetic regulation in prostate cancer. The next several articles review the possible role of androgens and AR signaling in breast cancer, bladder cancer, salivary gland cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as the potential treatment implications of using antiandrogen therapies in these non-prostatic malignancies.

Looking Forward to the Future of Heparin: New Sources, Developments and Applications

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ISBN: 9783038429494 / 9783038429500 Year: Pages: 282 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-950-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Looking Forward to the Future of Heparin: New Sources, Developments and Applications that was published in Molecules

Keywords

thrombin inhibition --- LMWH --- antithrombin --- heparin oligosaccharides --- ternary complex --- heparin --- hepcidin --- iron homeostasis --- anemia --- heparin-induced thrombocytopenia --- diagnosis --- functional assay --- platelets --- heparin --- heparan sulphate --- TGF-? --- bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) --- growth and differentiation factor (GDF) --- GDNF --- BMP antagonists --- noggin --- sclerostin --- gremlin --- heparin --- enoxaparin --- subarachnoid hemorrhage --- edema --- brain injury --- inflammation --- cisplatin --- low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) --- ovarian cancer --- resistance --- heparin --- glycosaminoglycans --- chondroitin sulfate --- perylene diimide dyes --- dermatan sulfate --- fluorescent probe --- Heparin Red --- assay --- dermatan sulfate --- human plasma --- heparin --- alginate --- sulfated alginate --- biomaterials --- heparin --- heparan sulfate --- serglycin --- proteoglycan --- recombinant expression --- bioreactor --- theranostics --- solid lipid nanoparticles --- iron oxide nanoparticles --- heparin coating --- intestinal lymphatic absorption --- heparin --- heparin process --- manufacturing methods --- industrial --- super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) --- hyaluronic acid (HA) --- bovine serum albumin (BSA) --- Fe3O4·DA-BSA/HA --- paclitaxel (PTX) --- magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) --- low-molecular-weight heparin --- dalteparin --- NMR --- LC-MS --- affinity chromatography --- danaparoid sodium --- low molecular weight glycosaminoglycans --- orthogonal multi-analytical methods --- sequence and compositional investigations --- component quantitative analysis --- heparin --- crude heparin --- NMR --- quantitative NMR --- PCA --- chemometric --- HSQC --- bovine heparin --- porcine heparin --- molecular weight --- size exclusion chromatography --- pharmacopeia --- Fondaparinux sodium --- extended physicochemical characterization --- qNMR --- single crystal X-ray structure --- reference standard --- iduronic acid conformation --- Arixtra® --- n/a --- n/a --- n/a

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