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Hack the Experience: Tools for Artists from Cognitive Science

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ISBN: 9781947447653 9781947447660 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.21983/P3.0206.1.00 Language: English
Publisher: punctum books
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-26 11:21:04
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Hack The Experience will reframe your perspective on how your audience engages your work. This will happen as you learn how to control attention through spatial and time-based techniques that you can harness as you build immersive installations or as you think about how to best arrange your work in an exhibition. You’ll learn things about the senses and how they interface with attention so that you can build in visceral forms of interactivity, engage people’s empathetic responses, and frame their moods. This book is a dense bouillon-cube of techniques that you can adapt and apply to your personal practice, and it’s a book that will walk you step-by-step through skill sets from ethnography, cognitive science, and multi-modal metaphors. The core argument of this book is that art is a form of cognitive engineering and that the physical environment (or objects in the physical environment) can be shaped to maximize emotional and sensory experience. Many types of art will benefit from this handbook (because cognition is pervasive in our experience of art), but it is particularly relevant to immersive experiential works such as installations, participatory/interactive environments, performance art, curatorial practice, architecture and landscape architecture, complex durational works, and works requiring new models of documentation. These types of work benefit from the empirical findings of cognitive science because intentionally leveraging basic human cognition in artworks can give participants new ways of seeing the world that are cognitively relevant. This leveraging process provides a new layer in the construction of conceptually grounded works.

Cellular Mechanisms of Ototoxicity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454839 Year: Pages: 292 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-483-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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The auditory perception of sounds (environmental, vocal or music) is one of the 5 principal senses consciously monitored by our brains, and is crucial for many human endeavors as well as quality of life. Loss of optimal performance in this principal sensory system leads to loss of effective communication and intimacy, as well as increased risk of isolation, depression, cognitive decline, and greater vulnerability to predators.The vestibular system ensures that individuals remain upright and effectively monitor their posture within their spatial surroundings, move effectively, and remain focused on visual targets during motion. The loss of vestibular sensitivity results in postural instability, falls, inability to observe the environment during motion, and a debilitating incapacity to function effectively. The sensory cells for both auditory and vestibular systems are located within the inner ear of the temporal bulla.There are many causes of auditory and vestibular deficits, including congenital (or genetic) events, trauma, aging and loud sound exposures. Ototoxicity refers to damage of the auditory or vestibular structures or functions, as the result of exposure to certain pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and/or ionizing radiation exposure that damage the inner ear. Ototoxicity is a major contributor to acquired hearing loss and vestibular deficits, and is entirely preventable.In 2009, the United States Department of Defense initiated the Hearing Center of Excellence (HCE), headquartered in San Antonio, Texas, in response to the prevalence of acquired auditory and vestibular deficits in military and veteran populations. The knowledge shared in this eBook supports the HCE’s mandate to improve aural protection of military and civilian populations worldwide.The last few years have seen significant advances in understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying ototoxic drug-induced hearing loss and vestibular deficits. In this eBook, we present some of these advances and highlight gaps where further research is needed. Selected articles discuss candidate otoprotective agents that can ameliorate the effects of ototoxicity in the context of how they illustrate cellular mechanisms of ototoxicity. Our goal in illustrating these advances in mechanisms of ototoxicity is to accelerate the development of clinical therapies that prevent or reverse this debilitating disorder.

The Insect Central Complex - From Sensory Coding to Directing Movement

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455782 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-578-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The most fundamental function of the brain is the analysis and integration of sensory information in order to generate motor commands that result in directed, meaningful interactions with the environment. This process can be viewed as an internal comparison between the current state of the world and a desired state of the world, with any mismatch leading to compensatory action. For an animal to respond to external stimuli in a directed way in any given sensory situation, it first has to assess the orientation of its body with reference to the environment. The current body position computed in this way then has to be matched against the desired position, and any resulting discrepancy has to be compensated for by a change in limb position, movement direction, or a transition to a new movement mode. The desired body orientation depends on many different parameters, such as the animal’s nutritional state, its reproductive status, the time of day, the current behavioral state, or previous experience. Vertebrate brains process these parameters across diverse brain regions, involving millions of neurons, a fact that makes pinpointing the underlying circuitry a daunting endeavor.Across insects, a single brain area, the central complex, is involved in many of the mentioned fundamental processes: It contains an ordered array of head direction cells, its neurons are targeted by multisensory input pathways, visual and spatial memories reside in this region, and certain central-complex neurons are active just before movements of the animal, predicting its future turning direction. Additionally, state-dependent changes of neural response characteristics and a vast supply of neuromodulators suggests a highly dynamic, context-dependent remodeling of local circuitry. All of this places the central complex at the interface of sensory processing and motor planning, providing a location at which current and desired heading could be compared and adequate action can be selected in response. The highly regular, almost crystalline neuroarchitecture of this region has the advantage of enabling us to immediately connect structure with function - at the level of identified, individual neurons. The neural algorithms implemented in the circuitry that mediate action selection are thus uniquely accessible in this brain region. This research topic therefore aims at connecting the diverse aspects of central-complex function and develop an open-source framework in which to embed current knowledge (reviews) and novel findings from biological, theoretical, and engineering perspectives (original research articles, short communications). Four complementary sub-topics provide the main focus: 1) The current state of the world - Encoding and integration of sensory information; 2) Generating behavior - Motor planning and neural correlates of behavior; 3) Computing the desired state of the world - Integration of internal state, memory, and behavioral state; 4) Neural hardware and algorithms - The underlying circuits and computations of the central complex. By illuminating structure-function relations on multiple levels in diverse species, within a brain region that is omnipresent across insects, we aim at exposing fundamental principles that enable animals to generate adaptive behavior despite inhabiting a world of an infinite number of possible sensory scenarios.

New Advanced Wireless Technologies for Objective Monitoring of Motor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454860 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-486-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Over the last decade, a growing number of researchers have used advanced wireless technologies including wearable sensors for objective evaluation of specific motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In the near future, sensing technologies will likely provide relevant advances in the clinical management of patients with PD, contributing to early diagnosis, disease progression monitoring and therapeutic approach. In this regard, this eBook hosts new original studies focused on the objective monitoring of motor symptoms and therapeutic perspectives of wireless technologies in patients with PD.

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